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Примеры install.cfg для автономной установки FreeBSD (boot pxe freebsd install xterm)


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From: bsdhound.com Newsgroups: Date: Mon, 9 Dec 2003 14:31:37 +0000 (UTC) Subject: Примеры install.cfg для автономной установки FreeBSD http://bsdhound.com//newsread.php?newsid=122 Creating a FreeBSD unattended Install Creating a unattended install is rather straightforward and easy. Essentially all you have to do is create a install.cfg and slap it on a floppy disk. Once you load up the sysinstaller you can goto options and load the script from the floppy. Below is a sample install.cfg script and some links to help get you on your way. It's rather nice having a install without a user needed to watch over it hoping you click the right dialog box in time.. So read up and share your install scripts if you try this out. For more options and their meanings please read the sysinstall man page. # ------------------------------------------------------- # FreeBSD Unattended Install Sample install.cfg # Provided by http://bsdhound.com # ------------------------------------------------------- # Turn on extra debugging. debug=YES # Initialize all variables to their defaults, overriding any previous settings. installVarDefaults nonInteractive=NO tryDHCP=NO noWarn=NO # router solicitation, turns off IPv6 tryRTSOL=NO # ------------------------------------------------------- # Networking Information # ------------------------------------------------------- hostname=devilinside domainname=mydomain.com # DHCP Server Should take care of below #nameserver=10.0.0.1 #defaultrouter=10.0.0.1 #ipaddr=DHCP #netmask=255.255.255.0 # ------------------------------------------------------- # Which installation method to use # ------------------------------------------------------- # FTP _ftpPath=ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ netDev=xl0 mediaSetFTP # NFS #mediaSetNFS #nfs=MyNfsServer:/export/ari_scratch2/gallatin/freebsd-dist # ------------------------------------------------------- # Select which distributions we want. # ------------------------------------------------------- dists= bin doc games manpages catpages proflibs dict info des compat1x compat20 compat21 X331bin X331cfg X331doc X331html X331lib X331lkit X331man X331prog X331ps X331set X331VG16 X331nest X331vfb X331fnts X331f100 X331fcyr X331fscl X331fnon sinclude #THE INFORMATION ABOVE HERE SHOULD BE ON 1 LINE. distSetCustom # ------------------------------------------------------- # Set the parameters for the partition editor # ------------------------------------------------------- # ad = IDE, da = SCSI disk=ad0 # Enable this for interactive fdisk # If you plan on using this on various other machies # it might be wise to enable the interactive fdisk and # disklabel #diskInteractive # Change this to "all" if this is a server, we don't want any multi-booting rubbish on our servers partition=existing bootManager=boot diskPartitionEditor # ------------------------------------------------------- # - All sizes are expressed in 512 byte blocks! # - "Size in MB" = sectors * 512 / 1024 / 1024 # - "Number of blocks" = xsize in mb * 1024 * 1024 / 512 # The non-zero value after the mountpoint means enable soft updates # ------------------------------------------------------- # 128MB UFS ad0s2a ad0s2-1=ufs 262144 / # 496MB SWAP ad0s2b ad0s2-2=swap 1015808 none # 256MB UFS ad0s2e ad0s2-3=ufs 524288 /var # 256MB UFS ad0s2f ad0s2-4=ufs 524288 /tmp # Rest of FreeBSD partition ad0s2g ad0s2-5=ufs 0 /usr #ad0s1=/ntfs N diskLabelEditor # OK, everything is set. Do it! installCommit # ------------------------------------------------------- # Install some packages at the end. # ------------------------------------------------------- package=BitchX-1.0c19_3 packageAdd package=bash-2.05b.007 packageAdd package=cvsup-without-gui-16.1h packageAdd package=logcheck-1.1.1_4 packageAdd package=lsof-4.69.1 packageAdd package=lynx-ssl-2.8.4.1d packageAdd package=mutt-1.4.1_4 packageAdd package=ncftp-3.1.5_2 packageAdd package=nmap-3.48_1 packageAdd package=pf_freebsd-2.00_1 packageAdd package=portupgrade-20030723 packageAdd package=rdate-1.0 packageAdd package=sudo-1.6.7.5 packageAdd package=screen-4.0.1_2 packageAdd package=vim-6.2.154 packageAdd package=wget-1.8.2_5 packageAdd package=whowatch-1.4 # ------------------------------------------------------- # this last package is special. It is used to configure the machine. # it installs several files (like /root/.rhosts) an its installation # script tweaks several options in /etc/rc.conf # ------------------------------------------------------- package=ari-0.0 packageAdd # In case of any problem with the script we enable remote access now and set a temporary root password command="echo rc_conf_files="/etc/rc.conf /etc/rc.conf.local" >> /etc/rc.conf" system command="echo sshd_enable="YES" >> /etc/rc.conf" system command="echo 'devilinside' | /usr/sbin/pw usermod -u root -h 0" system command=/sbin/reboot system
http://www.horseplay.demon.co.uk/freebsd_sysinstall.html ################################################### # This is my install.cfg for FreeBSD 4.8-RELEASE. You must save this in UNIX and not PC format! # This is a typical config that most people will want to use, modify as necessary. # # From the sysinstall manpage : # "sysinstall is currently at the end of its life cycle and will eventually be replaced." # # darren@dazRREEMMOOVVEEdaz.org # # *** WARNING *** DO NOT USE THIS CONFIG YOU'VE READ IT CAREFULLY AS IT WILL OVERWRITE YOUR DISK # # Use Alt F2 to see the debug output installVarDefaults nonInteractive=NO tryDHCP=NO noWarn=NO # router solicitation, turns off IPv6 tryRTSOL=NO debug=yes ################################################### # Installed host's configuration hostname=buddha.dazdaz.org domainname=dazdaz.org nameserver=158.152.1.43 defaultrouter=62.49.203.113 ipaddr=62.49.203.114 netmask=255.255.255.248 ################################################### # Which installation method to use # This is where the system will go - ftp://ftp.uk.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-4.8-release/All/ # If you use a different kernel, such as upgrading to 4.8-STABLE then you won't be able to ftp packages because # sysinstall does'nt allow it. _ftpPath=ftp://ftp.uk.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ netDev=xl0 mediaSetFTP #mediaSetNFS #nfs=MyNfsServer:/export/ari_scratch2/gallatin/freebsd-dist ################################################### # Select which distributions we want. dists=bin doc manpages dict info crypto compat3x compat4x ports ssecure sbase scontrib sgnu setc sinclude slib slibexec srelease sbin ssbin sshare ssys subin susbin ssmailcf Xbin Xcfg Xdoc Xhtml Xlib Xlk98 Xlkit Xman Xprog Xps Xset Servers/XSVGA Servers/XVG16 Servers/Xnest Servers/Xvfb Xfnts Xf100 Xfcyr Xfscl Xfnon Xfsrv distSetCustom ################################################### # Set the parameters for the partition editor # ad = IDE, da = SCSI disk=ad0 # Enable this for interactive fdisk #diskInteractive # Change this to "all" if this is a server, we don't want any multi-booting rubbish on our servers partition=existing bootManager=boot diskPartitionEditor ################################################### # - All sizes are expressed in 512 byte blocks! # - "Size in MB" = sectors * 512 / 1024 / 1024 # - "Number of blocks" = xsize in mb * 1024 * 1024 / 512 # The non-zero value after the mountpoint means enable soft updates # 128MB UFS ad0s2a ad0s2-1=ufs 262144 / # 496MB SWAP ad0s2b ad0s2-2=swap 1015808 none # 256MB UFS ad0s2e ad0s2-3=ufs 524288 /var # 256MB UFS ad0s2f ad0s2-4=ufs 524288 /tmp # Rest of FreeBSD partition ad0s2g ad0s2-5=ufs 0 /usr #ad0s1=/ntfs N diskLabelEditor # runs diskLabelCommit diskPartitionWrite installCommit package=apache-1.3.27_4 packageAdd package=autoconf254-2.54 packageAdd package=automake-1.5,1 packageAdd package=bash-2.05b.004 packageAdd package=cvsup-without-gui-16.1g packageAdd package=expat-1.95.6_1 packageAdd package=gawk-3.1.1 packageAdd package=gdb-5.3_20030311 packageAdd package=gdbm-1.8.3 packageAdd package=gettext-0.11.5_1 packageAdd package=gmake-3.80 packageAdd package=gsed-4.0.5 packageAdd package=libtool-1.3.4_4 packageAdd package=links-2.1.p9,1 packageAdd package=lynx-2.8.5d12 packageAdd package=mod_php4-4.3.1 packageAdd package=mozilla-1.3b,1 packageAdd package=mozilla-headers-1.3b,1 packageAdd package=mpg123-0.59r_9 packageAdd package=mtools-3.9.8_1 packageAdd package=ncftp-3.1.5 packageAdd package=ncurses-5.3 packageAdd package=netcat-1.10_1 packageAdd package=rsync-2.5.6_1 packageAdd package=samba-3.0a20 packageAdd package=screen-3.9.13 packageAdd package=stat-1.3_1 packageAdd package=sudo-1.6.6_1 packageAdd package=tcsh-6.11.00 packageAdd package=ucd-snmp-4.2.6 packageAdd package=unzip-5.50 packageAdd package=vim-6.1.365 packageAdd package=xmms-1.2.7_3 packageAdd #package=my-pkg #packageAdd # If you use execute a system command with parameters, then you must use double quotes, else it won't work # and will terminate the script. # I recommend that you execute as few commands here as possible because if they fail the subsequent commands # will not be executed, and so the entire installation may be unusable depending on the subsequent commands. # Remember to use the full path to the system command # WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING # These still don't work properly, i'm fed up with sysinstall!!! Just execute the script, that works. # WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING # In case of any problem with the script we enable remote access now and set a temporary root password command="echo rc_conf_files="/etc/rc.conf /etc/rc.conf.local" >> /etc/rc.conf" system command="echo sshd_enable="YES" >> /etc/rc.conf" system command="echo 'abc123' | /usr/sbin/pw usermod -u root -h 0" system # We write a script to make system changes as opposed to using a package as this way we have much more control # PATH is not set so also be careful to explicitly tell system where the script is command=/stand/post-install.sh system command=/sbin/reboot system # End of install.cfg
Here is a customised install.cfg that I also wrote which creates a /home as a seperate BSD partition which we'll use to survive future re-installs. installVarDefaults nonInteractive=NO tryDHCP=NO noWarn=NO tryRTSOL=NO debug=yes hostname=buddha.dazdaz.org domainname=dazdaz.org nameserver=158.152.1.43 defaultrouter=62.49.203.113 ipaddr=62.49.203.114 netmask=255.255.255.248 _ftpPath=ftp://ftp.fr.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ netDev=xl0 mediaSetFTP dists=bin doc manpages dict info crypto compat3x compat4x ports ssecure sbase scontrib sgnu setc sinclude slib slibexec srelease sbin ssbin sshare ssys subin susbin ssmailcf Xbin Xcfg Xdoc Xhtml Xlib Xlk98 Xlkit Xman Xprog Xps Xset Servers/XSVGA Servers/XVG16 Servers/Xnest Servers/Xvfb Xfnts Xf100 Xfcyr Xfscl Xfnon Xfsrv distSetCustom disk=ad0 partition=existing bootManager=boot diskPartitionEditor # - "Size in MB" = sectors * 512 / 1024 / 1024 # - "Number of blocks" = xsize in mb * 1024 * 1024 / 512 # 128MB UFS ad0s2a ad0s2-1=ufs 262144 / 1 # 496MB SWAP ad0s2b ad0s2-2=swap 1015808 none # 512MB UFS+S ad0s2e ad0s2-3=ufs 1048576 /var 1 # 256MB UFS+S ad0s2f ad0s2-4=ufs 524288 /tmp 1 # 40GB UFS+S ad0s2g ad0s2-5=ufs 83886080 /home 1 # Rest of FreeBSD partition ad0s2h ad0s2-6=ufs 0 /usr 1 #ad0s1=/ntfs N diskLabelEditor # runs diskLabelCommit diskPartitionWrite installCommit package=apache-1.3.27_4 packageAdd package=autoconf254-2.54 packageAdd package=automake-1.5,1 packageAdd package=bash-2.05b.004 packageAdd package=cvsup-without-gui-16.1g packageAdd package=expat-1.95.6_1 packageAdd package=gawk-3.1.1 packageAdd package=gdb-5.3_20030311 packageAdd package=gdbm-1.8.3 packageAdd package=gettext-0.11.5_1 packageAdd package=gmake-3.80 packageAdd package=gsed-4.0.5 packageAdd package=libtool-1.3.4_4 packageAdd package=links-2.1.p9,1 packageAdd package=linux_base-7.1_2 packageAdd package=linux_devtools-7.1 packageAdd package=lynx-2.8.5d12 packageAdd package=mod_php4-4.3.1 packageAdd package=mozilla-1.3b,1 packageAdd package=mozilla-headers-1.3b,1 packageAdd package=mpg123-0.59r_9 packageAdd package=mtools-3.9.8_1 packageAdd package=ncftp-3.1.5 packageAdd package=ncurses-5.3 packageAdd package=netcat-1.10_1 packageAdd package=rsync-2.5.6_1 packageAdd package=samba-3.0a20 packageAdd package=screen-3.9.13 packageAdd package=stat-1.3_1 packageAdd package=sudo-1.6.6_1 packageAdd package=tcsh-6.11.00 packageAdd package=ucd-snmp-4.2.6 packageAdd package=unzip-5.50 packageAdd package=vim-6.1.365 packageAdd package=xmms-1.2.7_3 packageAdd command=/stand/post-install.sh system command=/sbin/reboot system FreeBSD automated installation Links Useful install.cfg editing http://sysadmin.cs.caltech.edu/docs/systems/freebsd_howto Diskless booting http://www.freebsd.org/doc/handbook/diskless.html Booting FreeBSD with PXE http://matt.simerson.net/computing/freebsd.netboot.shtml FreeBSD Jumpstart Guide - PXE docs http://people.freebsd.org/~alfred/pxe/ FreeBSD Jumpstart Guide http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/pxe/article.html Using Sysinstall's install.cfg to Automate FreeBSD Installations http://www.cs.duke.edu/~gallatin/sysinstall.html FreeBSD network booting http://etherboot.berlios.de/doc/html/freebsd/t1.html A m0n0BSD NFS boot (terminal) transcript http://m0n0.ch/bsd/hack/boot.html http://m0n0.ch/bsd/hack/ Good post on creating dynamic install.cfg files - very clever indeed http://groups.google.com/groups?threadm=bgh15b%2450p%241%40FreeBSD.csie.NCTU.edu.tw
http://www.cs.duke.edu/~gallatin/sysinstall.html # This is the installation configuration file for our rackmounted FreeBSD # cluster machines # Turn on extra debugging. debug=yes ################################ # My host specific data hostname=dragonfly domainname=cs.duke.edu nameserver=152.3.145.240 defaultrouter=152.3.145.240 ipaddr=152.3.145.64 netmask=255.255.255.0 ################################ ################################ # Which installation device to use nfs=MyNfsServer:/export/ari_scratch2/gallatin/freebsd-dist netDev=fxp0 mediaSetNFS ################################ ################################ # Select which distributions we want. dists= bin doc games manpages catpages proflibs dict info des compat1x compat20 compat21 X331bin X331cfg X331doc X331html X331lib X331lkit X331man X331prog X331ps X331set X331VG16 X331nest X331vfb X331fnts X331f100 X331fcyr X331fscl X331fnon sinclude distSetCustom ################################ ################################ # Now set the parameters for the partition editor on sd0. disk=sd0 partition=all bootManager=none diskPartitionEditor diskPartitionWrite ################################ ################################ # All sizes are expressed in 512 byte blocks! # # A 96MB root partition, followed by a 0.5G swap partition, followed by # a 1G /var, and a /usr using all the remaining space on the disk # sd0s1-1=ufs 196608 / sd0s1-2=swap 1048576 none sd0s1-3=ufs 2097152 /var sd0s1-4=ufs 0 /usr # Let's do it! diskLabelEditor # OK, everything is set. Do it! installCommit # Install some packages at the end. package=tcsh-6.07.02 packageAdd package=ImageMagick-3.9.0 packageAdd package=LPRng-3.2.3 packageAdd package=Xaw3d-1.3 packageAdd package=bash-1.14.7 packageAdd package=bash-2.01 packageAdd package=blas-1.0 packageAdd package=bonnie-1.0 packageAdd package=ctwm-3.5b1 packageAdd package=cvsup-15.2 packageAdd package=emacs-19.34b packageAdd package=expect-5.25 packageAdd package=g77-0.5.19.1 packageAdd package=ghostscript-5.03 packageAdd package=gmake-3.76.1 packageAdd package=gnuplot-336 packageAdd package=ines-0.7 packageAdd package=iozone-2.01 packageAdd package=jbigkit-0.9 packageAdd package=jpeg-6a packageAdd package=lapack-2.0 packageAdd package=less-332 packageAdd package=linux_lib-2.4 packageAdd package=lmbench-1.1 packageAdd package=lsof-4.15 packageAdd package=modula-3-3.6 packageAdd package=modula-3-lib-3.6 packageAdd package=modula-3-socks-1.0 packageAdd package=mpeg_lib-1.2.1 packageAdd package=mtools-3.8 packageAdd package=ncftp-2.4.2 packageAdd package=netperf-2.1.3 packageAdd package=p5-Tk-402.002 packageAdd package=pdksh-5.2.12 packageAdd package=perl-5.00401 packageAdd package=png-0.96 packageAdd package=python-1.4 packageAdd package=skill-3.7.4 packageAdd package=sudo-1.5.3 packageAdd package=tcl-7.5.1 packageAdd package=tcl-7.6 packageAdd package=tcl-8.0 packageAdd package=tcpblast-1.0 packageAdd package=tcplist-2.2 packageAdd package=tcptrace-4.0.2 packageAdd package=tiff-3.3 packageAdd package=tk-4.1.1 packageAdd package=tk-8.0 packageAdd package=transfig-3.2 packageAdd package=xemacs-20.2 packageAdd package=xfig-3.2 packageAdd package=xless-1.7 packageAdd package=xlispstat-3.44 packageAdd package=xloadimage-3.03 packageAdd package=xpaint-2.5 packageAdd package=xpm-3.4j packageAdd package=xv-3.10a packageAdd package=xvgr-2.10.1 packageAdd package=xview-config-3.2.1 packageAdd package=xview-lib-3.2.1 packageAdd package=xxgdb-1.12 packageAdd package=zip-2.1 packageAdd package=zsh-3.0.5 packageAdd # # this last package is special. It is used to configure the machine. # it installs several files (like /root/.rhosts) an its installation # script tweaks several options in /etc/rc.conf # package=ari-0.0 packageAdd
http://www.tnpi.biz/computing/freebsd/pxe-netboot.shtml Booting FreeBSD via PXE (Preboot Execution Environment) Version: v1.2 Publish Date: Dec 5, 2000. Updated: Oct 18, 2003. Audience: Unix System Administrators Objective: Document the steps necessary to boot and/or install a FreeBSD 5.x system using a DHCP, NFS, & TFTP server. Background: FreeBSD can boot and install off a variety of mediums. The common and most useful are floppies, cd-roms, and the network (ppp, NFS, & ftp). All the methods work essentially the same, you bootstrap the helpless machine off floppies (yes, even the CD boot uses floppy emulation) and the mini-FreeBSD system then has enough smarts to initialize CD-ROM drives, Ethernet, and PPP interfaces. This all works fairly good for installing FreeBSD on one machine but what happens when you want to install it on 20, or 50, or 1,000 machines? Right now the process is pretty much a manual one on every machine. This is expensive, error prone, and slow. Excuse: I had quite a few reasons to embark upon this project. 1. It's a Royal PITA [TM] to build a custom FreeBSD install CD. I literally spent days fuddying with cramming all the stuff I wanted onto a 2.88M disk image and burning a lot of coasters getting it perfected. The process of building bootable media isn't documented well and worse yet, the only real documentation is found by searching mailing lists. This is less than convenient as I found myself compiling lots of post-it notes. 2. Even when I successfully built a bootable CD I was severely limited because I was stuck in the confines of 2.88M. You must wrestle with picobsd and the unless you're a good programmer (I'm not) you're pretty much stuck living with the choices that were made by others for their (apparently) obtuse reasons. No matter how hard I tried, I just couldn't have as much fun as I'd like to when booting off a CD. 3. Building a restore CD (to boot a failed server) that boots, rebuilds, and restores an entire system is not easy. I needed a simpler method of getting a machine bootstrapped than spending hours building a custom boot CD that would let a clue deficient NOC operator restore my servers. 4. The only time the CDROM drive gets used is when I'm installing the OS. It's quite a waste to buy servers with Cd-Roms when you're only going to use them once. You can do more with 1U and 2U hardware when you've got another drive bay to play with. 5. In my spare time I'm building a cluster of FreeBSD machines. It's primary purpose thus far is the conversion of electricity to heat in my garage. I figure at some point I'll find a use for it but until then, just building it has provided me with ample motivation to learn a lot of cool new stuff about FreeBSD. At BSDCon 2000 I sat in on a panel taught by Doug White on automated system installations. It gave me the impetus to charge forth and conquer the beast known as PXE. I'm too lazy to look up some of the facts (again) so anywhere I use <>, please feel free to send me the relevant information and URL's where I can verify and I'll update my documentation. Some time ago <date please> Intel developed a technology known as PXE and began blessing their wonderful EtherExpress Pro Server Adapters with this spiffy new feature. <Some 3Com NIC cards> also include PXE technology. PXE is designed to allow a NIC card to fetch a configuration from a DHCP server and boot up a computer via it's network interface. John Baldwin and Paul Saab at FreeBSD saw the usefulness of this feature and wrote a little boot loader appropriately named pxeboot. Pxeboot is included in FreeBSD 4.1 and higher. So, how does it work you ask? Very well, I must say. Once you satisfy it's many dependencies, things work great. Getting everything satisfied wasn't as simple as I'd hoped. Anyway, follow the steps below to reach enlightenment. Requirement 1: FreeBSD distribution. It would be nice for FreeBSD to just magically appear on your hard drive but alas, we've got to get it from somewhere. I suppose you could fetch it from the FTP server but I simply copied the CD contents to a NFS exported file system on my server. # mount /cdrom # mkdir -p /usr/local/export/freebsd5.1 # rsync -avz /cdrom/ /usr/local/export/freebsd5.1 # ln -s /usr/local/export/freebsd5.1 /usr/local/export/freebsd Requirement 2: Ethernet adapter with PXE boot roms. The Intel Management adapters all include PXE but even our newest batches required flash updating to get FreeBSD booted properly. This is what my oldest Intel's looked like at first: Intel UNDI, PXE-2.0 (build 067) Copyright (C) 1997-1998 Intel Corporation This version of PXE bios does not work. It will load the pxeboot loader but fails soon thereafter. A visit to Intel's web site had me downloading a file named 8255x.zip. Within that archive was three very useful things. The first was a directory name 8255x containing the boot ROM's for the Intel 8255x adapters. Logical huh? :-) The other useful tool was the fboot.exe program. I created a DOS boot floppy and copied these programs onto the boot floppy. I then installed five Intel adapters into the PCI slots of my server and proceeded to update them all. After installing the new firmware the PXE bios looks like this: Intel (R) Boot Agent Version 4.0.12 PXE 2.0 Build 082 (Wfm 2.0), RPC v2.7.3 Press Ctrl+S to enter the Setup Menu Requirement 3: DHCP Server. I already had ISC-DHCP 3.0b installed so I merely had to add a couple lines to my DHCP configuration. Here's what a working configuration looks like: option broadcast-address 192.168.254.255; option domain-name-servers 192.168.254.3; option domain-name "simerson.net"; option routers 192.168.254.1; option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0; server-name "pxe-gw"; server-identifier 192.168.254.3; next-server 192.168.254.3; default-lease-time -1; subnet 192.168.254.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 { range 192.168.254.32 192.168.254.99; option root-path "/usr/local/export/pxe"; filename "pxeboot"; } host cm.simerson.net { hardware ethernet 00:e0:18:98:f0:cc; fixed-address 192.168.254.126; } host c1.simerson.net { hardware ethernet 00:60:97:0e:bb:a7; fixed-address 192.168.254.131; } Requirement 4: DNS server. I'm not sure it's its necessary but I'm sure it's at least a good idea. Create an entry in your DNS records for dhcpserver.yourdomain.com and records for all the addresses in your DHCP pool. It's saves us a lot of time waiting for DNS timeouts when we've got DNS set up correctly. Requirement 5: TFTP server. The DHCP configuration tells the booting client that it's supposed to grab the filename "pxeboot" from the TFTP server (next-server) at 192.168.254.3. Here's how mine is set up: # grep tftp /etc/inetd.conf tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/libexec/tftpd tftpd -l /tftpboot # ll /tftpboot -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 165888 Nov 30 11:46 pxeboot This is pretty easy to configure. On most systems, simply comment out the tftp line in your /etc/inetd.conf and restart inetd (killall -HUP inetd). NOTE: TFTP has virtually no built in security. You should only enable a TFTP server on an internal (trusted) network or use a firewall to restrict access to it. At a minimum, use TCP wrappers. Requirement 6: PXEBOOT. Copy the pxeboot file from your /usr/src/sys tree to the /tftpboot directory and you're all set: # cp /sys/boot/i386/pxeldr/pxeboot /tftpboot Once your machine has loaded the NIC cards PXE bios, it will (assuming it's the chosen boot device) make the tftp request for the file "pxeboot" from the tftp server. The tftp server, being properly configured will hand it the file "pxeboot" which is comparable to the FreeBSD loader program. NOTE: The pxeboot program can be compiled to fetch the loader via TFTP or NFS. NFS is the default but you can add this "LOADER_TFTP_SUPPORT=YES" to your /etc/make.conf and recompile pxeboot (#cd /usr/src/sys/boot; make clean; make depend; make; cp i386/pxeldr/pxeboot /tftpboot). Requirement 7: Boot loader. Once PXE boot is loaded it will fetch the files it needs from the /boot directory that's defined within the root-path directive your DHCP server handed it. Since we've defined a root path of /usr/local/export/pxe, it'll be looking within the /boot directory there for the second and third stage boot loaders. Here's what we've got set up there: matt# ll /usr/local/export/pxe/boot -r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 512 boot1 -r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 7680 boot2 -r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 163840 loader -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 504 loader.rc -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 105 loader.rc-freebsd-ide -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 105 loader.rc-freebsd-mailserver -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 93 loader.rc-freebsd-mylex -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 101 loader.rc-freebsd-scsi You can get these files in a couple ways. You can either snag them off the mfsroot.flp (follow the instructions on [24]Alfred Perlstein's page) or just copy them from your source tree (like I did): cd /sys/boot mkdir -p /usr/local/export/pxe/boot cp i386/loader/loader /usr/local/export/pxe/boot cp i386/boot2/boot1 /usr/local/export/pxe/boot cp i386/boot2/boot2 /usr/local/export/pxe/boot You'll need to create the contents of the loader.rc file to look something like this: # more /usr/local/export/pxe/boot/loader.rc echo Loading Kernel... load /boot/kernel/kernel load linux.ko set choice=freebsd-ide echo echo You have 5 seconds to select one of the following: echo echo mylex echo scsi echo ide echo mailserver echo read -t 5 -p "Type in your selection EXACTLY: " choice echo include /boot/loader.rc-$choice echo booting... echo \007\007 echo initializing h0h0magic... set vfs.root.mountfrom=ufs:/dev/md0c" #set console="comconsole" #(very useful if you don't have a kvm on the box) boot I also wanted to have the ability to select which mfsroot I wanted to boot off so I figured out how to script the loader process a little bit. You'll notice that the loader.rc calls another file (ex. /boot/loader.rc-freebsd-ide). Here's all that file looks like: # more loader.rc-ide echo Loading FreeBSD installer mfsroot for IDE/UDMA drives... load -t mfs_root /mfsroot-ide Requirement 8: NFS Server. Since we're going to use pxeboot's default retrieval method of NFS, we'd better export the /usr/local/export/pxe directory. Once most systems it's as easy as putting a line in /etc/exports that looks like this: "/usr -alldirs -maproot=root -ro". That exports the entire /usr file system with read only permissions. Once you've added that line to the exports file, you need to restart (or start) mountd. To set everything up on a FreeBSD system, just do this: # echo "/usr -alldirs -maproot=root -ro" >> /etc/exports # if mountd is running "killlall -HUP mountd`" # if mountd is not running "nfsd -t -u; mountd" If you want this machine to be a NFS server every time you reboot, add this to your /etc/rc.conf: "nfs_server_enable="YES". NOTE: NFS security is adequate at best. Use IPFIREWALL or IPFILTER (I use IPFIREWALL) to restrict access to it. Requirement 9: Bootable Kernel. At this point your new machine has just run the loader program which, as instructed by the loader.rc file, is going to try loading the file named "kernel" from our root path. Lucky for us, we've got a perfectly good kernel floating around in our / directory so we just copy it from there over to our exported directory. # rsync -av /boot/kernel /usr/local/export/pxe/boot/ There are some requirements for this kernel, most specifically the MFS support but if you just use a GENERIC kernel, things will work out just fine for you. The reason you don't want to use the kernel off the boot.flp or kern.flp images is that they pause at the kernel configuration screen. Using a custom kernel also gives you the flexibility to load klm's (kernel loadable modules) for your custom install packages if you need to (I did). Once the kernel loads we'll proceed to the next line of the loader.rc file and that's fetching the mfsroot file. The mfsroot is just that, a memory based file system that's stored in a file. Requirement 10: MFSROOT. You have a couple options here. The first is to simply use the mfsroot disk image that comes with the version of FreeBSD you are installing. There are instructions for doing so on [25]Alfred Perlstein's page. If your needs are modest and can be met with the tools provided on the mfsroot floppy then have at it. However, that defeats half the purpose of doing this exercise in the first place. I create a directory with the entire FreeBSD CD on my drive. I do it like this: mdconfig -a -t vnode -u 2 -f /path/to/5.1-RELEASE-i386-disc1.iso mkdir -p /mnt/cdrom mount_cd9660 /dev/md2 /mnt/cdrom mkdir -p /usr/local/export/freebsd5.1 rsync -av /mnt/cdrom/ /usr/local/export/freebsd5.1/ mdconfig -d -u2 The real power behind this is that you can create your own mfsroot with no size restrictions. Weehee, let's make a really big 25 megabyte mfsroot: cd /usr/local/export/pxe dd if=/dev/zero of=mfsroot bs=1k count=25000 mdconfig -a -t vnode -f mfsroot -u0 disklabel -r -w md0 auto newfs /dev/md0c mkdir -p /mnt/mfs mount /dev/md0 /mnt/mfs There, now we've got 25 megs of space mounted on /mnt to play with. The basic rule of thumb here to keep in mind is that you are building a root file system for FreeBSD. Everything the kernel, sysinstall, and your install programs needs from the root file system is what you need to have in your /mnt directory. To get started we'll copy the contents of the distribution mfsroot.flp to our new mfsroot: mkdir /mnt/floppy mdconfig -a -t vnode -u 1 -f /usr/local/export/freebsd5.1/floppies/mfsroot.flp mount /dev/md1 /mnt/floppy cp /mnt/floppy/mfsroot.gz /tmp umount /mnt/floppy mdconfig -d -u 1 gunzip /tmp/mfsroot.gz mdconfig -a -t vnode -u 1 -f /tmp/mfsroot mount /dev/md1 /mnt/floppy rsync -avzH /mnt/floppy/ /mnt/mfs umount /mnt/floppy mdconfig -d -u 1 Voila, now we've got a bootable mfsroot partition and tons of space to play with. One thing to keep in mind, when you place any of your spiffy utilities on there, make sure you compile them statically. This is usually as easy as changing into the appropriate source directory, editing the Makefile and adding "-static" to the CFLAGS. You've got plenty of room to hack up your own sysinstall or anything else that you want/need on your root partition. At this point, you can simply umount the mfsroot (umount /mnt/mfs; mdconfig -d -u 0) or build it up the way you want/need. We have some pretty ugly kludges we've made which including hacking sysinstall and a few other goodies that use about 20 megs. I'm sure you'll find some creative ways to use all that space. Just drop in your statically compiled binary and run with it. My system looks like this at boot time: Intel (R) Boot Agent Version 4.0.12 PXE 2.0 Build 082 (Wfm 2.0), RPC v2.7.3 Press Ctrl+S to enter the Setup Menu DHCP MAC ADDR: 00: CLIENT ID: 192.168.254.133 MASK 255.255.255.0 DHCP IP: 192.168.254.3 GATEWAY IP: 192.168.254.1 PXE Loader 1.00 Building the boot loader arguments Relocating the loader and the BTX Starting the BTX loader BTX loader 1.00 BTX Version 1.01 Console: internal video/keyboard BIOS drive A: is disk0 PXE Version 2.1, real mode entry point @9db3:0106 BIOS 639kB/392180kB available memory FreeBSD/i386 bootstrap loader, Revision 0.8 (root@matt.simerson.net), Thu Nov 30 11:45:41 PST 2000) pxe_open: server addr: 192.168.254.3 pxe_open: server path: /usr/local/export/pxe pxe_open: gateway ip: 192.168.254.1 Hit [Enter] to boot immediately, or any other key for command prompt. Booting [kernel] Requirement 11: Install.cfg. If you're installing FreeBSD via the Ethernet adapter, (as opposed to just using PXE to netboot) then you'll want to script sysinstall. Why go though all this bother if you have to sit in front of the box and answer questions? Anyway, now our loader.rc has requested the mfsroot file and pulled our 25 meg image across it's 100Megabit interface. The loader.rc also tells the kernel to get it's root file system from memory disk 0 (md0c) that we loaded. The kernel then had it's root partition set up based on the contents of our mfsroot partition. Once it checks out our hardware it looks for /sbin/init which doesn't exist and then falls back to running sysinstall. Sysinstall checks to see if the file /install.cfg exists and if so, uses it to control it's behavior. The script syntax is documented in "man sysinstall" which you might need to install (cd /usr/src/release/sysinstall; make install). There's a sample install.cfg installed at: /usr/src/usr.sbin/sysinstall/install.cfg and here's what my install.cfg looks like: # Turn on extra debugging. #debug=yes #noWarn=YES tryDHCP=YES ################################ # My host specific data hostname=new.simerson.net domainname=simerson.net nameserver=192.168.254.3 defaultrouter=192.168.254.3 #ipaddr=204.216.27.230 #netmask=255.255.255.240 ################################ ################################ _ftpPath=ftp://ftp.cdrom.com/pub nfs=192.168.254.3:/usr/local/export/freebsd netDev=fxp0 mediaSetNFS #mediaSetFTP #mediaSetCDROM #mediaSetHTTP #mediaSetUFS #mediaGetType #netInteractive ################################ ################################ # Select which distributions we want. dists=bin doc manpages catpages proflibs dict info crypto compat22 compat3x compat4x ssecure sbase ssys setc ports distSetCustom ################################ ################################ # Now set the parameters for the partition editor on da0. Set to use the # disk exclusively (could also be "all" to use the whole disk but # respecting the MBR or "free" to use only unallocated space for FreeBSD). diskInteractive=0 disk=da0 #disk=ad0 partition=all #partition=exclusive #partition=free bootManager=booteasy #bootManager=standard diskPartitionEditor ################################ ################################ # All sizes are expressed in 512 byte blocks! # A 500MB root partition da0s1-1=ufs 1024000 / # And a 2GB swap partition da0s1-2=swap 4096000 none # And a 3GB var partition da0s1-3=var 6144000 none # Followed by a /usr partition using all remaining space (size 0 = free space) # and with softupdates enabled (non-zero arg following mountpoint). da0s1-4=ufs 0 /usr 1 # Let's do it! diskLabelEditor ################################ ################################ # Now partition the 2nd disk. #disk=ad1 #partition=exclusive #diskPartitionEditor #ad1s1-1=ufs 40960 /var #ad1s1-2=ufs 0 /usr/src #diskLabelEditor ################################ # OK, everything is set. Do it! installCommit # Install some packages at the end. package=bash-2.05b.007 packageAdd package=ncftp1-1.9.5 packageAdd package=rsync-2.5.6_1 packageAdd package=sudo-1.6.7.4 packageAdd package=gmake-3.80 packageAdd package=libtool-1.3.4_4 packageAdd package=gdm2-2.4.1.4_1 packageAdd package=cvsup-16.1h packageAdd #package=simerson-net #packageAdd # #system /stand/my.custom.installer shutdown

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