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tcp (4)
  • tcp (4) ( FreeBSD man: Специальные файлы /dev/* )
  • >> tcp (4) ( Linux man: Специальные файлы /dev/* )
  • tcp (7) ( Solaris man: Макропакеты и соглашения )
  • tcp (7) ( Русские man: Макропакеты и соглашения )
  • tcp (7) ( Linux man: Макропакеты и соглашения )
  • Ключ tcp обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.


    tcp - TCP protocol.


    #include <sys/socket.h>
    #include <netinet/in.h>
    tcp_socket = socket(PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);  


    This is an implementation of the TCP protocol defined in RFC793, RFC1122 and RFC2001 with the NewReno extensions. It implements a reliable stream oriented full duplex stream between two sockets. TCP ensures that packets are not reordered and retransmits them when they are dropped. It generates and checks a per packet checksum to catch transmission errors.

    A fresh TCP socket has no remote or local address and is not fully specified. To create an outgoing TCP connection the connect(2) function is called on the socket. To accept incoming connections bind(2) the socket first to a local address and port and then call listen(2) to allow the accepting of incoming connections. Then use accept(2) to get a new socket with the incoming connection. The listening socket stays. After accept(2) or connect(2) a socket is fully specified. Data may be only transferred on fully specified sockets.

    When the initial connection request packet carries IP options and the accept_source_routes sysctl is enabled all outgoing datagrams on this connection will carry the reversed source route.

    Linux 2.2 supports the RFC1323 TCP high performance extensions. They include window scaling to support large windows and the timestamp option with protection against wrapped sequence numbers ( PAWS ). Large windows are needed for good performance over links with long latencies or very high bandwidth. To use them the send and receive buffers have to be increased from the default values. This can be either done globally using the net.core.wmen_default and net.core.rmem_default sysctls, or on a per socket basis using the SO_SNDBUF and SO_RCVBUF socket options. The maximum receive buffer size settable on a socket is limited by the global net.core.rmem_max and net.core.wmem_max sysctls. See socket(4) for more information.

    TCP supports urgent data. Urgent data is used to signal the receiver that some important message is part of the data stream and that is should be processed as soon as possible. To send urgent data specify the MSG_OOB option to sendfile(2). When urgent data is received the kernel sends an SIGURG signal to the reading process or the process or process group that has been set for the socket using the FIOCSPGRP or FIOCSETOWN ioctls. When the SO_OOBINLINE socket option is enabled urgent data is put into the normal data stream (and can be tested for by the SIOCATMARK ioctl), otherwise it can be only received when the MSG_OOB flag is set for sendmsg(2).NotethatLinuxperdefaultusestheBSDcompatible interpretation of the urgent pointer field, see the tcp_stdurg sysctl below.  


    TCP is built on top of IP (see ip(4)). The address formats defined by ip(4) apply to TCP. TCP only supports point-to-point communication; broadcasting and multicasting are not supported.  


    These sysctls can be accessed by the /proc/sys/net/ipv4/* files or with the sysctl(2) interface. In addition, most IP sysctls also apply to TCP; see ip(4).
    Enable RFC1323 TCP window scaling.
    Enable RFC2018 TCP Selective Acknowledgements.
    Enable RFC1323 TCP timestamps.
    How many seconds to wait for a final FIN packet before the socket is forcibly closed. This is strictly a violation of the TCP specification, but required to prevent denial-of-service attacks.
    Maximum TCP keep-alive probes to send before giving up. Keep-alives are only send when the SO_KEEPALIVE socket option is enabled.
    How often keep-alives are sent on a connection. Defined in seconds. Default is 2 hours.
    How many keep-alive probes are sent per slow timer run. To prevent bursts, this value should not be set too high.
    Enable the strict RFC793 interpretation of the TCP urgent-pointer field. The default is to use the BSD-compatible interpretation of the urgent-pointer, pointing to the first byte after the urgent data. The RFC793 interpretation is to have it point to the last byte of urgent data. Enabling this option may lead to interoperatibility problems.
    Enable TCP syncookies. The kernel must be compiled with CONFIG_SYN_COOKIES. They defend against a particular TCP denial-of-service attack. Note that the concept of a socket backlog is abandoned; this means the peer may not receive reliable error messages from an overloaded server with syncookies enabled.
    Length of the per-socket backlog queue. As of Linux 2.2, the backlog specified in listen(2) only specifies the length of the backlog queue of already established sockets. The maximum queue of sockets not yet established (in SYN_RECV state) per listen socket is set by this sysctl. When more connection requests arrive, Linux starts to drop packets. When syncookies, are enabled the packets are still answered and the maximum queue is effectively ignored.
    Defines how many times an answer to a TCP connection request is retransmited before giving up.
    Defines how many times a TCP packet is retransmitted in established state before giving up.
    Defines how many times to try to send an initial SYN packet to a remote host before giving up and returns an error. Must be below 255. This is only the timeout for outgoing connections; for incoming connections the number of retransmits is defined by tcp_retries1. tcp_retries1.
    Try to send full-sized packets during retransmit. This is used to work around TCP bugs in some stacks.


    To set or get a TCP socket option, call getsockopt(2) to read or setsockopt(2) to write the option with the socket family argument set to SOL_TCP. In addition, most SOL_IP socket options are valid on TCP sockets. For more information see ip(4).
    Turn the Nagle algorithm off. This means that packets are always sent as soon as possible and no unnecessary delays are introduced, at the cost of more packets in the network. Expects an integer boolean flag.
    Set or receive the maximum segment size for outgoing TCP packets. If this option is set before connection establishment, it also changes the MSS value announced to the other end in the initial packet. Values greater than the interface MTU are ignored and have no effect.
    If enabled don't send out partial frames. All queued partial frames are sent when the option is cleared again. This is useful for prepending headers before calling sendfile(2), or for throughput optimization. This option cannot be combined with TCP_NODELAY.


    These ioctls can be accessed using ioctl(2). The correct syntax is:

    int value;
    error = ioctl(tcp_socket, ioctl_type, &value);
    Returns the amount of queued unread data in the receive buffer. Argument is a pointer to an integer.
    Returns true when the all urgent data has been already received by the user program. This is used together with SO_OOBINLINE. Argument is an pointer to an integer for the test result.
    Returns the amount of unsent data in the socket send queue. Argument is an integer.


    When a network error occurs, TCP tries to resend the packet. If it doesn't succeed after some time, either ETIMEDOUT or the last received error on this connection is reported.

    Some applications require a quicker error notification. This can be enabled with the SOL_IP level IP_RECVERR socket option. When this option is enabled, all incoming errors are immediately passed to the user program. Use this option with care - it makes TCP less tolerant to routing changes and other normal network conditions.

    When the other end closes the socket without doing a proper closing handshake, a SIGPIPE signal is raised and EPIPE is returned. This can be prevented by the MSG_NOSIGNAL flag.  


    The other end closed the socket unexpectedly.
    The other end didn't acknowledge retransmitted data after some time.
    Passed socket address type in sin_family was not AF_INET.

    Any errors defined for ip(4) or the generic socket layer may also be returned for TCP.  


    Not all errors are documented.

    IPv6 is not described.

    Transparent proxy options are not described.  


    The sysctls are new in Linux 2.2. IP_RECVERR and MSG_NOSIGNAL are a new feature in Linux 2.2. TCP_CORK is new in 2.2.  


    socket(4), socket(2), ip(4), sendmsg(2), recvmsg(2)




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