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    NAME
         X - a portable, network-transparent window system
    
    SYNOPSIS
         The X Window System is a network transparent  window  system
         which  runs  on  a  wide  range  of  computing  and graphics
         machines.  It should be relatively straightforward to  build
         the X Window System software distribution on most ANSI C and
         POSIX compliant  systems.   Commercial  implementations  are
         also available for a wide range of platforms.
    
         The Open Group requests that the  following  names  be  used
         when referring to this software:
    
                                      X
                               X Window System
                                 X Version 11
                         X Window System, Version 11
                                     X11
    
         X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.
    
    DESCRIPTION
         X  Window  System  servers  run  on  computers  with  bitmap
         displays.   The server distributes user input to and accepts
         output requests  from  various  client  programs  through  a
         variety  of  different  interprocess communication channels.
         Although the most common case is for the client programs  to
         be running on the same machine as the server, clients can be
         run transparently from other  machines  (including  machines
         with different architectures and operating systems) as well.
    
         X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and text  and
         graphics  operations, on both monochrome and color displays.
         For a full explanation of the functions that are  available,
         see  the  Xlib - C Language X Interface manual, the X Window
         System Protocol specification, the X Toolkit Intrinsics -  C
         Language Interface manual, and various toolkit documents.
    
         The number of programs that use X is quite large.   Programs
         provided  in  the core X Window System distribution include:
         a terminal emulator, xterm; a window manager, twm; a display
         manager,  xdm;  a console redirect program, xconsole; a mail
         interface,  xmh;   a   bitmap   editor,   bitmap;   resource
         listing/manipulation  tools, appres, editres; access control
         programs, xauth, xhost, and iceauth; user preference setting
         programs,  xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmod-
         map; clocks, xclock and  oclock;  a  font  displayer,  (xfd;
         utilities  for listing information about fonts, windows, and
         displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo,  xlsclients,  xdpyinfo,  xlsa-
         toms,  and  xprop; screen image manipulation utilities, xwd,
         xwud, and xmag; a performance measurement utility,  x11perf;
         a  font compiler, bdftopcf; a font server and related utili-
         ties, xfs, fsinfo, fslsfonts, fstobdf; an X Image  Extension
         exerciser,  xieperf; a display server and related utilities,
         Xserver, rgb, mkfontdir; remote execution utilities,  rstart
         and  xon; a clipboard manager, xclipboard; keyboard descrip-
         tion compiler  and  related  utilities,  xkbcomp,  xkbprint,
         xkbbell,  xkbevd,  xkbvleds, and xkbwatch; a utility to ter-
         minate  clients,  xkill;  an  optimized  X  protocol  proxy,
         lbxproxy;  a  firewall security proxy, xfwp; a proxy manager
         to control them,  proxymngr;  a  utility  to  find  proxies,
         xfindproxy;   Netscape  Navigator  Plug-ins,  libxrx.so  and
         libxrxnest.so; an RX MIME-type helper program,  xrx;  and  a
         utility  to  cause  part or all of the screen to be redrawn,
         xrefresh.
    
         Many other utilities, window managers, games, toolkits, etc.
         are  included  as  user-contributed software in the X Window
         System distribution, or are available using anonymous ftp on
         the Internet.  See your site administrator for details.
    
    STARTING UP
         There are two main ways of getting the X server and an  ini-
         tial  set  of  client  applications started.  The particular
         method used depends on what operating system you are running
         and  whether or not you use other window systems in addition
         to X.
    
         xdm (the X Display Manager)
                 If you  want  to  always  have  X  running  on  your
                 display,   your  site  administrator  can  set  your
                 machine up to use the X Display Manager  xdm.   This
                 program  is  typically started by the system at boot
                 time and takes care of keeping  the  server  running
                 and  getting  users  logged  in.  If you are running
                 xdm, you will see a window on the  screen  welcoming
                 you  to  the system and asking for your username and
                 password.  Simply type them in as  you  would  at  a
                 normal terminal, pressing the Return key after each.
                 If you make a mistake, xdm  will  display  an  error
                 message  and  ask  you to try again.  After you have
                 successfully logged in, xdm will  start  up  your  X
                 environment.   By default, if you have an executable
                 file named .xsession in  your  home  directory,  xdm
                 will  treat it as a program (or shell script) to run
                 to start up your initial clients (such  as  terminal
                 emulators,  clocks,  a window manager, user settings
                 for things like the background,  the  speed  of  the
                 pointer, etc.).  Your site administrator can provide
                 details.
    
         xinit (run manually from the shell)
                 Sites that support more than one window system might
                 choose to use the xinit program for starting X manu-
                 ally.  If this is true for your machine,  your  site
                 administrator  will probably have provided a program
                 named "x11", "startx",  or  "xstart"  that  will  do
                 site-specific  initialization  (such as loading con-
                 venient default resources, running a window manager,
                 displaying  a  clock,  and starting several terminal
                 emulators) in a nice way.  If  not,  you  can  build
                 such a script using the xinit program.  This utility
                 simply runs one user-specified program to start  the
                 server,   runs  another  to  start  up  any  desired
                 clients, and then waits for either to finish.  Since
                 either or both of the user-specified programs may be
                 a shell script, this gives  substantial  flexibility
                 at  the  expense of a nice interface.  For this rea-
                 son, xinit is not intended for end users.
    
    DISPLAY NAMES
         From the user's perspective, every X server  has  a  display
         name of the form:
    
                     hostname:displaynumber.screennumber
    
         This information is used by the application to determine how
         it  should  connect to the server and which screen it should
         use by default (on displays with multiple monitors):
    
         hostname
                 The hostname specifies the name of  the  machine  to
                 which  the  display is physically connected.  If the
                 hostname is not given, the  most  efficient  way  of
                 communicating  to  a server on the same machine will
                 be used.
    
         displaynumber
                 The phrase "display" is usually  used  to  refer  to
                 collection  of monitors that share a common keyboard
                 and pointer (mouse, tablet,  etc.).   Most  worksta-
                 tions tend to only have one keyboard, and therefore,
                 only one display.  Larger, multi-user systems,  how-
                 ever,  frequently have several displays so that more
                 than one person can be doing graphics work at  once.
                 To  avoid  confusion,  each  display on a machine is
                 assigned a display number (beginning at 0) when  the
                 X  server  for that display is started.  The display
                 number must always be given in a display name.
    
         screennumber
                 Some displays share a single  keyboard  and  pointer
                 among  two or more monitors.  Since each monitor has
                 its own set of windows, each screen  is  assigned  a
                 screen number (beginning at 0) when the X server for
                 that display is started.  If the  screen  number  is
                 not given, screen 0 will be used.
    
         On POSIX systems, the default display name is stored in your
         DISPLAY environment variable.  This variable is set automat-
         ically by the xterm terminal emulator.   However,  when  you
         log  into another machine on a network, you will need to set
         DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.  For example,
    
             % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
             $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY
         The xon script can be used to start an X program on a remote
         machine;   it   automatically   sets  the  DISPLAY  variable
         correctly.
    
         Finally, most X programs accept a  command  line  option  of
         -display displayname to temporarily override the contents of
         DISPLAY.  This is most  commonly  used  to  pop  windows  on
         another  person's screen or as part of a "remote shell" com-
         mand to start an xterm pointing back to your  display.   For
         example,
    
             % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
             % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &
    
         X servers listen for connections on a variety  of  different
         communications   channels   (network  byte  streams,  shared
         memory, etc.).  Since there can be more than one way of con-
         tacting  a  given  server,  The hostname part of the display
         name is used to determine the type of channel (also called a
         transport  layer)  to  be used.  X servers generally support
         the following types of connections:
    
         local
                 The hostname part of the display name should be  the
                 empty  string.  For example:  :0, :1, and :0.1.  The
                 most efficient local transport will be chosen.
    
         TCP/IP
                 The hostname part of the display name should be  the
                 server  machine's  IP  address  name.  Full Internet
                 names, abbreviated names, and IP addresses  are  all
                 allowed.     For    example:     x.org:0,    expo:0,
                 198.112.45.11:0, bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.
    
         DECnet
                 The hostname part of the display name should be  the
                 server  machine's  nodename,  followed by two colons
                 instead of one.  For example:  myws::0, big::1,  and
                 hydra::0.1.
    
    
    ACCESS CONTROL
         An X  server  can  use  several  types  of  access  control.
         Mechanisms provided in Release 6 are:
             Host Access                   Simple host-based access control.
             MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1            Shared plain-text "cookies".
             XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1           Secure DES based private-keys.
             SUN-DES-1                     Based on Sun's secure rpc system.
             MIT-KERBEROS-5                Kerberos Version 5 user-to-user.
    
         Xdm initializes access  control  for  the  server  and  also
         places authorization information in a file accessible to the
         user.  Normally, the list of hosts  from  which  connections
         are  always  accepted  should be empty, so that only clients
         with are explicitly authorized can connect to  the  display.
         When  you  add  entries  to  the host list (with xhost), the
         server no longer performs any authorization  on  connections
         from those machines.  Be careful with this.
    
         The file from which Xlib extracts authorization data can  be
         specified  with  the  environment  variable  XAUTHORITY, and
         defaults to the file .Xauthority in the home directory.  Xdm
         uses  $HOME/.Xauthority  and  will  create  it  or  merge in
         authorization records if it already exists when a user  logs
         in.
    
         If you use several machines and share a common  home  direc-
         tory  across  all of the machines by means of a network file
         system, you never really have to worry  about  authorization
         files,  the system should work correctly by default.  Other-
         wise, as the authorization  files  are  machine-independent,
         you  can  simply  copy  the  files to share them.  To manage
         authorization files, use xauth.  This program allows you  to
         extract  records  and  insert  them into other files.  Using
         this, you can send authorization to remote machines when you
         login,  if  the  remote machine does not share a common home
         directory with your local machine.  Note that  authorization
         information  transmitted  ``in the clear'' through a network
         file system or using ftp or rcp can be ``stolen'' by a  net-
         work  eavesdropper,  and  as  such  may  enable unauthorized
         access.  In many environments, this level of security is not
         a  concern,  but if it is, you need to know the exact seman-
         tics of the particular authorization data to know if this is
         actually a problem.
    
         For more information on access control,  see  the  Xsecurity
         manual page.
    
    GEOMETRY SPECIFICATIONS
         One of the advantages of using  window  systems  instead  of
         hardwired  terminals  is  that applications don't have to be
         restricted to a particular size or location on  the  screen.
         Although the layout of windows on a display is controlled by
         the window manager  that  the  user  is  running  (described
         below),  most  X  programs accept a command line argument of
         the  form  -geometry  WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF  (where  WIDTH,
         HEIGHT,  XOFF,  and  YOFF are numbers) for specifying a pre-
         ferred size and location for this application's main window.
    
         The WIDTH and HEIGHT parts of the geometry specification are
         usually  measured  in either pixels or characters, depending
         on the application.  The XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in
         pixels  and  are  used to specify the distance of the window
         from the left or right and  top  and  bottom  edges  of  the
         screen,  respectively.   Both  types of offsets are measured
         from the indicated edge of the screen to  the  corresponding
         edge  of  the  window.  The X offset may be specified in the
         following ways:
    
         +XOFF   The left edge of the window is  to  be  placed  XOFF
                 pixels  in  from  the left edge of the screen (i.e.,
                 the X coordinate of  the  window's  origin  will  be
                 XOFF).   XOFF  may  be  negative,  in which case the
                 window's left edge will be off the screen.
    
         -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to  be  placed  XOFF
                 pixels  in  from the right edge of the screen.  XOFF
                 may be negative, in which case  the  window's  right
                 edge will be off the screen.
    
         The Y offset has similar meanings:
    
         +YOFF   The top edge of the window  is  to  be  YOFF  pixels
                 below  the top edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coor-
                 dinate of the window's origin will be  YOFF).   YOFF
                 may be negative, in which case the window's top edge
                 will be off the screen.
    
         -YOFF   The bottom edge of the window is to be  YOFF  pixels
                 above  the  bottom  edge of the screen.  YOFF may be
                 negative, in which case  the  window's  bottom  edge
                 will be off the screen.
    
         Offsets must be given as pairs; in other words, in order  to
         specify  either  XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows
         can be placed in the four corners of the  screen  using  the
         following specifications:
    
         +0+0    upper left hand corner.
    
         -0+0    upper right hand corner.
    
         -0-0    lower right hand corner.
    
         +0-0    lower left hand corner.
         In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed  in
         roughly the center of the screen and a load average monitor,
         mailbox, and clock  are  placed  in  the  upper  right  hand
         corner:
    
             xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
             xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
             xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
             xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &
    
    WINDOW MANAGERS
         The layout of windows on the screen is controlled by special
         programs  called  window  managers.   Although  many  window
         managers will honor geometry specifications as given, others
         may  choose to ignore them (requiring the user to explicitly
         draw the window's region on the screen with the pointer, for
         example).
    
         Since window managers are regular  (albeit  complex)  client
         programs,  a  variety  of  different  user interfaces can be
         built.  The X Window System distribution comes with a window
         manager  named twm which supports overlapping windows, popup
         menus, point-and-click or click-to-type input models,  title
         bars,  nice  icons  (and an icon manager for those who don't
         like separate icon windows).
    
         See the user-contributed software in  the  X  Window  System
         distribution for other popular window managers.
    
    FONT NAMES
         Collections of characters for displaying text and symbols in
         X are known as fonts.  A font typically contains images that
         share a common appearance and look nice together (for  exam-
         ple,  a  single  size,  boldness, slant, and character set).
         Similarly, collections of fonts that are based on  a  common
         type  face  (the  variations are usually called roman, bold,
         italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique)  are  called
         families.
    
         Fonts come in various sizes.  The X server supports scalable
         fonts,  meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary
         size from a single source for the font.  The server supports
         scaling  from  outline fonts and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from
         outline fonts usually produces significantly better  results
         than scaling from bitmap fonts.
    
         An X server can obtain fonts from individual files stored in
         directories  in  the  file  system, or from one or more font
         servers, or from a mixtures of directories and font servers.
         The  list  of  places the server looks when trying to find a
         font is controlled by its font path.  Although most  instal-
         lations  will choose to have the server start up with all of
         the commonly used font directories in  the  font  path,  the
         font  path can be changed at any time with the xset program.
         However, it is important  to  remember  that  the  directory
         names are on the server's machine, not on the application's.
    
         Bitmap font files are usually created by compiling a textual
         font  description  into  binary  form, using bdftopcf.  Font
         databases are created by running the  mkfontdir  program  in
         the  directory containing the source or compiled versions of
         the  fonts.   Whenever  fonts  are  added  to  a  directory,
         mkfontdir  should  be  rerun so that the server can find the
         new fonts.  To make the server  reread  the  font  database,
         reset  the font path with the xset program.  For example, to
         add a font to a private directory,  the  following  commands
         could be used:
    
             % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
             % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
             % xset fp rehash
    
         The xfontsel and xlsfonts programs can  be  used  to  browse
         through the fonts available on a server.  Font names tend to
         be fairly long as they contain all of the information needed
         to  uniquely  identify  individual  fonts.   However,  the X
         server supports wildcarding  of  font  names,  so  the  full
         specification
    
             -adobe-courier-medium-r-normal--10-100-75-75-m-60-iso8859-1
    
         might be abbreviated as:
    
             -*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
    
         Because the shell also has special meanings  for  *  and  ?,
         wildcarded font names should be quoted:
    
             % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'
    
         The xlsfonts program can be used to list all  of  the  fonts
         that match a given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all
         available fonts.  This will usually list the  same  font  at
         many  different  sizes.   To see just the base scalable font
         names, try using one of the following patterns:
    
             -*-*-*-*-*-*-0-0-0-0-*-0-*-*
             -*-*-*-*-*-*-0-0-75-75-*-0-*-*
             -*-*-*-*-*-*-0-0-100-100-*-0-*-*
    
         To convert one of the resulting  names  into  a  font  at  a
         specific  size,  replace  one  of the first two zeros with a
         nonzero value.  The field containing the first zero  is  for
         the  pixel size; replace it with a specific height in pixels
         to name a font at that size.  Alternatively, the field  con-
         taining  the  second  zero is for the point size; replace it
         with a specific size in decipoints (there  are  722.7  deci-
         points  to  the inch) to name a font at that size.  The last
         zero is an average width field, measured in tenths  of  pix-
         els; some servers will anamorphically scale if this value is
         specified.
    
    FONT SERVER NAMES
         One of the following forms can be used to name a font server
         that accepts TCP connections:
    
             tcp/hostname:port
             tcp/hostname:port/cataloguelist
    
         The hostname specifies the name (or decimal numeric address)
         of  the  machine  on  which the font server is running.  The
         port is the decimal TCP port on which  the  font  server  is
         listening  for  connections.   The cataloguelist specifies a
         list of catalogue names, with '+' as a separator.
    
         Examples: tcp/x.org:7100, tcp/198.112.45.11:7100/all.
    
         One of the following forms can be used to name a font server
         that accepts DECnet connections:
    
             decnet/nodename::font$objname
             decnet/nodename::font$objname/cataloguelist
    
         The nodename specifies the name (or decimal numeric address)
         of  the  machine  on  which the font server is running.  The
         objname is a normal, case-insensitive  DECnet  object  name.
         The  cataloguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with
         '+' as a separator.
    
         Examples:                       DECnet/SRVNOD::FONT$DEFAULT,
         decnet/44.70::font$special/symbols.
    
    COLOR NAMES
         Most applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through
         resources  or  command line arguments) the colors of various
         elements in the text and graphics they display.  A color can
         be  specified  either  by  an  abstract  color name, or by a
         numerical color specification.  The numerical  specification
         can  identify  a  color  in either device-dependent (RGB) or
         device-independent   terms.    Color   strings   are   case-
         insensitive.
    
         X supports the use of abstract  color  names,  for  example,
         "red",  "blue".   A value for this abstract name is obtained
         by searching one or more color name databases.   Xlib  first
         searches  zero  or  more  client-side databases; the number,
         location, and content of these databases  is  implementation
         dependent.  If the name is not found, the color is looked up
         in the X server's database.  The text form of this  database
         is  commonly  stored  in  the  file <XRoot>/lib/X11/rgb.txt,
         where <XRoot> is replaced by the root  of  the  X11  install
         tree.
    
         A numerical color specification consists of  a  color  space
         name and a set of values in the following syntax:
    
             <color_space_name>:<value>/.../<value>
    
         An RGB Device specification  is  identified  by  the  prefix
         "rgb:" and has the following syntax:
    
             rgb:<red>/<green>/<blue>
    
                 <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
                 h := single hexadecimal digits
         Note that h indicates the value scaled in  4  bits,  hh  the
         value scaled in 8 bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and
         hhhh the value  scaled  in  16  bits,  respectively.   These
         values  are passed directly to the X server, and are assumed
         to be gamma corrected.
    
         The eight primary colors can be represented as:
    
             black                rgb:0/0/0
             red                  rgb:ffff/0/0
             green                rgb:0/ffff/0
             blue                 rgb:0/0/ffff
             yellow               rgb:ffff/ffff/0
             magenta              rgb:ffff/0/ffff
             cyan                 rgb:0/ffff/ffff
             white                rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff
    
         For backward compatibility, an older syntax for  RGB  Device
         is  supported, but its continued use is not encouraged.  The
         syntax is an initial sharp  sign  character  followed  by  a
         numeric specification, in one of the following formats:
    
             #RGB                      (4 bits each)
             #RRGGBB                   (8 bits each)
             #RRRGGGBBB                (12 bits each)
             #RRRRGGGGBBBB             (16 bits each)
    
         The R, G, and B represent single hexadecimal  digits.   When
         fewer  than  16  bits each are specified, they represent the
         most-significant bits of the value (unlike the  "rgb:"  syn-
         tax,  in which values are scaled).  For example, #3a7 is the
         same as #3000a0007000.
    
         An RGB intensity specification is identified by  the  prefix
         "rgbi:" and has the following syntax:
    
             rgbi:<red>/<green>/<blue>
    
         The red, green, and blue are floating point  values  between
         0.0  and  1.0,  inclusive.   They represent linear intensity
         values, with 1.0 indicating full intensity, 0.5 half  inten-
         sity,  and  so  on.  These values will be gamma corrected by
         Xlib before being sent to the X server.   The  input  format
         for  these  values  is an optional sign, a string of numbers
         possibly  containing  a  decimal  point,  and  an   optional
         exponent  field  containing an E or e followed by a possibly
         signed integer string.
    
         The standard device-independent string  specifications  have
         the following syntax:
    
             CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>             (none, 1, none)
             CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>             (~.6, ~.6, 1)
             CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>             (~.75, ~.85, 1)
             CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>             (100, none, none)
             CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>             (100, none, none)
             TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>             (360, 100, 100)
    
         All of the values (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v, y,  x)  are
         floating  point  values.  Some of the values are constrained
         to be between zero and some upper bound;  the  upper  bounds
         are given in parentheses above.  The syntax for these values
         is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of digits  possibly
         containing  a  decimal point, and an optional exponent field
         consisting of an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional  '+'  or
         '-' followed by a string of digits.
    
         For more information on device independent  color,  see  the
         Xlib reference manual.
    
    KEYBOARDS
         The X keyboard model is broken  into  two  layers:   server-
         specific  codes (called keycodes) which represent the physi-
         cal keys, and server-independent  symbols  (called  keysyms)
         which  represent  the  letters  or  words that appear on the
         keys. Two tables are kept in the server for converting  key-
         codes to keysyms:
    
         modifier list
                 Some keys (such as Shift, Control,  and  Caps  Lock)
                 are  known  as  modifier and are used to select dif-
                 ferent symbols that are attached  to  a  single  key
                 (such   as   Shift-a  generates  a  capital  A,  and
                 Control-l generates a control  character  ^L).   The
                 server keeps a list of keycodes corresponding to the
                 various modifier keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or
                 released,  the  server  generates an event that con-
                 tains the keycode of the indicated key as well as  a
                 mask  that  specifies which of the modifier keys are
                 currently pressed.  Most servers set up this list to
                 initially  contain  the  various shift, control, and
                 shift lock keys on the keyboard.
    
         keymap table
                 Applications translate event keycodes  and  modifier
                 masks  into  keysyms using a keysym table which con-
                 tains one row for each keycode and  one  column  for
                 various  modifier states.  This table is initialized
                 by the server to  correspond  to  normal  typewriter
                 conventions.   The  exact semantics of how the table
                 is interpreted to produce  keysyms  depends  on  the
                 particular  program,  libraries,  and language input
                 method used, but the following conventions  for  the
                 first four keysyms in each row are generally adhered
                 to:
    
         The first four elements of  the  list  are  split  into  two
         groups  of  keysyms.   Group 1 contains the first and second
         keysyms; Group 2 contains  the  third  and  fourth  keysyms.
         Within  each  group,  if the first element is alphabetic and
         the the second element is the special keysym NoSymbol,  then
         the  group  is treated as equivalent to a group in which the
         first element is the lowercase letter and the second element
         is the uppercase letter.
    
         Switching between groups is controlled by the  keysym  named
         MODE  SWITCH,  by  attaching  that  keysym  to  some key and
         attaching that key to any one of the modifiers Mod1  through
         Mod5.   This  modifier  is  called  the  ``group modifier.''
         Group 1 is used when the group modifier is off, and Group  2
         is used when the group modifier is on.
    
         Within a group, the modifier state determines  which  keysym
         to  use.   The  first keysym is used when the Shift and Lock
         modifiers are off.  The second keysym is used when the Shift
         modifier  is on, when the Lock modifier is on and the second
         keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when the Lock modifier is
         on  and  is  interpreted  as ShiftLock.  Otherwise, when the
         Lock modifier is on and  is  interpreted  as  CapsLock,  the
         state  of  the  Shift  modifier is applied first to select a
         keysym; but if that keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the
         corresponding uppercase keysym is used instead.
    
    OPTIONS
         Most X programs attempt to use the same  names  for  command
         line  options  and arguments.  All applications written with
         the X Toolkit Intrinsics automatically accept the  following
         options:
    
         -display display
                 This option specifies the name of the  X  server  to
                 use.
    
         -geometry geometry
                 This option specifies the initial size and  location
                 of the window.
    
         -bg color, -background color
                 Either option specifies the color  to  use  for  the
                 window background.
    
         -bd color, -bordercolor color
                 Either option specifies the color  to  use  for  the
                 window border.
    
         -bw number, -borderwidth number
                 Either option specifies the width in pixels  of  the
                 window border.
    
         -fg color, -foreground color
                 Either option specifies the color to use for text or
                 graphics.
    
         -fn font, -font font
                 Either option specifies the font to use for display-
                 ing text.
    
         -iconic
                 This option indicates that  the  user  would  prefer
                 that  the  application's  windows  initially  not be
                 visible as if the windows had be immediately  iconi-
                 fied by the user.  Window managers may choose not to
                 honor the application's request.
    
         -name
                 This option specifies the name under which resources
                 for the application should be found.  This option is
                 useful in shell aliases to distinguish between invo-
                 cations  of  an  application,  without  resorting to
                 creating links to alter the executable file name.
    
         -rv, -reverse
                 Either option  indicates  that  the  program  should
                 simulate  reverse  video if possible, often by swap-
                 ping the foreground and background colors.  Not  all
                 programs  honor  this or implement it correctly.  It
                 is usually only used on monochrome displays.
    
         +rv
                 This option indicates that the  program  should  not
                 simulate reverse video. This is used to override any
                 defaults since reverse  video  doesn't  always  work
                 properly.
    
         -selectionTimeout
                 This option specifies the  timeout  in  milliseconds
                 within  which  two  communicating  applications must
                 respond to one another for a selection request.
    
         -synchronous
                 This option indicates that requests to the X  server
                 should  be  sent synchronously, instead of asynchro-
                 nously.  Since Xlib normally buffers requests to the
                 server,  errors  do  not  necessarily  get  reported
                 immediately after they occur.  This option turns off
                 the   buffering  so  that  the  application  can  be
                 debugged.  It should never be used  with  a  working
                 program.
    
         -title string
                 This option specifies the title to be used for  this
                 window.   This  information  is  sometimes used by a
                 window manager to provide some sort of header  iden-
                 tifying the window.
    
         -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
                 This option specifies the language,  territory,  and
                 codeset  for  use  in  resolving  resource and other
                 filenames.
    
         -xrm resourcestring
                 This option specifies a resource name and  value  to
                 override  any  defaults.  It is also very useful for
                 setting resources that don't have  explicit  command
                 line arguments.
    
    RESOURCES
         To make the tailoring of applications  to  personal  prefer-
         ences  easier,  X  provides  a mechanism for storing default
         values for program resources (e.g. background color,  window
         title,  etc.)   Resources  are specified as strings that are
         read in from various places  when  an  application  is  run.
         Program components are named in a hierarchical fashion, with
         each node in the hierarchy identified  by  a  class  and  an
         instance  name.   At the top level is the class and instance
         name of the application itself.  By  convention,  the  class
         name of the application is the same as the program name, but
         with  the first letter capitalized (e.g.  Bitmap  or  Emacs)
         although some programs that begin with the letter ``x'' also
         capitalize the second letter for historical reasons.
    
         The precise syntax for resources is:
    
         ResourceLine      = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
         Comment           = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
         IncludeFile       = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
         FileName          = <valid filename for operating system>
         ResourceSpec      = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
         ResourceName      = [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
         Binding           = "." | "*"
         WhiteSpace        = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
         Component         = "?" | ComponentName
         ComponentName     = NameChar {NameChar}
         NameChar          = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
         Value             = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}
    
         Elements separated by vertical  bar  (|)  are  alternatives.
         Curly  braces  ({...})  indicate zero or more repetitions of
         the enclosed elements.   Square  brackets  ([...])  indicate
         that  the  enclosed element is optional.  Quotes ("...") are
         used around literal characters.
    
         IncludeFile lines are interpreted by replacing the line with
         the contents of the specified file.  The word "include" must
         be in lowercase.  The filename is  interpreted  relative  to
         the  directory  of  the  file  in which the line occurs (for
         example, if the filename contains no directory or contains a
         relative directory specification).
    
         If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of  two  or
         more  Binding characters, the sequence will be replaced with
         single "." character if the sequence contains only "." char-
         acters,  otherwise the sequence will be replaced with a sin-
         gle "*" character.
    
         A resource database never contains more than one entry for a
         given  ResourceName.   If  a resource file contains multiple
         lines with the same ResourceName, the last line in the  file
         is used.
    
         Any whitespace character before or after the name  or  colon
         in  a  ResourceSpec  are ignored.  To allow a Value to begin
         with  whitespace,  the  two-character  sequence   ``\space''
         (backslash  followed by space) is recognized and replaced by
         a space character, and the two-character  sequence  ``\tab''
         (backslash  followed  by  horizontal  tab) is recognized and
         replaced by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value to
         contain   embedded  newline  characters,  the  two-character
         sequence ``\n'' is recognized  and  replaced  by  a  newline
         character.   To  allow  a Value to be broken across multiple
         lines in a text file,  the  two-character  sequence  ``\new-
         line''  (backslash  followed  by  newline) is recognized and
         removed from  the  value.   To  allow  a  Value  to  contain
         arbitrary   character  codes,  the  four-character  sequence
         ``\nnn'', where each n is a digit character in the range  of
         ``0''-``7'',  is  recognized and replaced with a single byte
         that contains the octal value  specified  by  the  sequence.
         Finally, the two-character sequence ``\\'' is recognized and
         replaced with a single backslash.
    
         When an application looks for the value of  a  resource,  it
         specifies  a complete path in the hierarchy, with both class
         and instance names.  However, resource  values  are  usually
         given with only partially specified names and classes, using
         pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk  (*)  is  a  loose
         binding  and  is used to represent any number of intervening
         components, including none.  A period (.) is a tight binding
         and  is used to separate immediately adjacent components.  A
         question mark (?) is used to match any single component name
         or  class.   A database entry cannot end in a loose binding;
         the final component (which cannot be "?") must be specified.
         The  lookup algorithm searches the resource database for the
         entry that most closely matches (is most specific  for)  the
         full name and class being queried.  When more than one data-
         base entry matches the full name and class, precedence rules
         are used to select just one.
    
         The full name and class are scanned from left to right (from
         highest  level in the hierarchy to lowest), one component at
         a time.  At each level, the corresponding  component  and/or
         binding  of  each  matching  entry  is determined, and these
         matching components and bindings are compared  according  to
         precedence  rules.   Each  of  the  rules is applied at each
         level, before moving to the next level, until a rule selects
         a single entry over all others.  The rules (in order of pre-
         cedence) are:
    
         1.   An entry that contains a  matching  component  (whether
              name,  class,  or  "?")   takes precedence over entries
              that elide the level (that is, entries that  match  the
              level in a loose binding).
    
         2.   An entry with a matching  name  takes  precedence  over
              both  entries  with  a  matching class and entries that
              match using "?".  An entry with a matching class  takes
              precedence over entries that match using "?".
    
         3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding  takes  precedence
              over entries preceded by a loose binding.
    
         Programs based on the X Tookit Intrinsics  obtain  resources
         from  the  following sources (other programs usually support
         some subset of these sources):
    
         RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property
                 Any global resources that  should  be  available  to
                 clients  on  all  machines  should  be stored in the
                 RESOURCE_MANAGER property on the root window of  the
                 first  screen  using the xrdb program.  This is fre-
                 quently taken care of when  the  user  starts  up  X
                 through the display manager or xinit.
    
         SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
                 Any resources  specific  to  a  given  screen  (e.g.
                 colors)  that  should be available to clients on all
                 machines should be stored  in  the  SCREEN_RESOURCES
                 property  on  the  root  window of that screen.  The
                 xrdb program will sort resources  automatically  and
                 place  them in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES,
                 as appropriate.
    
         application-specific files
                 Directories named by the environment variable XUSER-
                 FILESEARCHPATH or the environment variable XAPPLRES-
                 DIR (which names a single directory and  should  end
                 with  a '/' on POSIX systems), plus directories in a
                 standard place (usually under <XRoot>/lib/X11/,  but
                 this  can  be  overridden  with  the XFILESEARCHPATH
                 environment   variable)   are   searched   for   for
                 application-specific resources.  For example, appli-
                 cation  default  resources  are  usually   kept   in
                 <XRoot>/lib/X11/app-defaults/.   See  the  X Toolkit
                 Intrinsics  -  C  Language  Interface   manual   for
                 details.
    
         XENVIRONMENT
                 Any user-  and  machine-specific  resources  may  be
                 specified  by  setting  the XENVIRONMENT environment
                 variable to the name of a resource file to be loaded
                 by  all  applications.   If  this  variable  is  not
                 defined, a file named  $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname  is
                 looked  for  instead,  where hostname is the name of
                 the host where the application is executing.
    
         -xrm resourcestring
                 Resources can also be  specified  from  the  command
                 line.   The resourcestring is a single resource name
                 and value as shown above.  Note that if  the  string
                 contains  characters interpreted by the shell (e.g.,
                 asterisk), they must be quoted.  Any number of  -xrm
                 arguments may be given on the command line.
    
         Program resources are organized into groups called  classes,
         so  that  collections of individual resources (each of which
         are called instances) can be set all at  once.   By  conven-
         tion,  the  instance name of a resource begins with a lower-
         case letter and  class  name  with  an  upper  case  letter.
         Multiple  word  resources  are  concatenated  with the first
         letter of the succeeding  words  capitalized.   Applications
         written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the
         following resources:
    
         background (class Background)
                 This resource specifies the color  to  use  for  the
                 window background.
    
         borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
                 This resource specifies the width in pixels  of  the
                 window border.
    
         borderColor (class BorderColor)
                 This resource specifies the color  to  use  for  the
                 window border.
    
         Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics  also  have
         the  resource  foreground (class Foreground), specifying the
         color to use for text and graphics within the window.
    
         By combining class and instance specifications,  application
         preferences  can  be set quickly and easily.  Users of color
         displays will frequently want to set  Background  and  Fore-
         ground  classes  to  particular  defaults.   Specific  color
         instances such  as  text  cursors  can  then  be  overridden
         without  having to define all of the related resources.  For
         example,
    
             bitmap*Dashed:  off
             XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
             XTerm*multiScroll:  on
             XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
             XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
             XTerm*curses:  on
             XTerm*Font:  6x10
             XTerm*scrollBar: on
             XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
             XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
             XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
             XTerm*cutNewline: off
             XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
             XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
             XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
             XLoad*Background: gold
             XLoad*Foreground: red
             XLoad*highlight: black
             XLoad*borderWidth: 0
             emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
             emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
             emacs*Foreground:  white
             emacs*Cursor:  white
             emacs*BorderColor:  white
             emacs*Font:  6x10
             xmag*geometry: -0-0
             xmag*borderColor:  white
    
         If these resources were stored in a file called  .Xresources
         in  your home directory, they could be added to any existing
         resources in the server with the following command:
    
             % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources
    
         This is frequently how user-friendly startup  scripts  merge
         user-specific  defaults  into  any  site-wide defaults.  All
         sites are encouraged to set up convenient ways of  automati-
         cally   loading  resources.  See  the  Xlib  manual  section
         Resource Manager Functions for more information.
    
    EXAMPLES
         The following is a collection of sample  command  lines  for
         some  of the more frequently used commands.  For more infor-
         mation  on  a  particular  command,  please  refer  to  that
         command's manual page.
    
             %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
             %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
             %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
             %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
             %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
             %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
             %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
             %  xset q
             %  twm
             %  xmag
             %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
             %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
             %  xbiff -update 20
             %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
             %  xwininfo -root
             %  xdpyinfo -display joesworkstation:0
             %  xhost -joesworkstation
             %  xrefresh
             %  xwd | xwud
             %  bitmap companylogo.bm 32x32
             %  xcalc -bg blue -fg magenta
             %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*
             %  xon filesysmachine xload
    
    DIAGNOSTICS
         A wide variety of error messages are generated from  various
         programs.   The  default error handler in Xlib (also used by
         many toolkits) uses standard resources to construct diagnos-
         tic  messages  when  errors  occur.   The defaults for these
         messages are usually stored in <XRoot>/lib/X11/XErrorDB.  If
         this  file  is  not  present,  error messages will be rather
         terse and cryptic.
    
         When the X Toolkit Intrinsics  encounter  errors  converting
         resource  strings  to  the  appropriate  internal format, no
         error messages are usually printed.  This is convenient when
         it  is  desirable  to  have  one  set  of resources across a
         variety of displays (e.g.  color  vs.  monochrome,  lots  of
         fonts vs. very few, etc.), although it can pose problems for
         trying to determine why an  application  might  be  failing.
         This   behavior   can  be  overridden  by  the  setting  the
         StringConversionsWarning resource.
    
         To force the X Toolkit Intrinsics  to  always  print  string
         conversion  error messages, the following resource should be
         placed   in   the   file   that   gets   loaded   onto   the
         RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb program (frequently
         called .Xresources or .Xres in the user's home directory):
    
             *StringConversionWarnings: on
    
         To have conversion messages printed for  just  a  particular
         application,  the  appropriate  instance  name can be placed
         before the asterisk:
    
             xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on
    
    SEE ALSO
         XProjectTeam(1), XStandards(1), Xsecurity(1),
    
         appres(1), bdftopcf(1),  bitmap(1),  editres(1),  fsinfo(1),
         fslsfonts(1), fstobdf(1), iceauth(1), imake(1), lbxproxy(1),
         makedepend(1),   mkfontdir(1),   oclock(1),    proxymngr(1),
         rgb(1),    resize(1),    rstart(1),    smproxy(1),   twm(1),
         x11perf(1),   x11perfcomp(1),    xauth(1),    xclipboard(1),
         xclock(1),   xcmsdb(1),  xconsole(1),  xdm(1),  xdpyinfo(1),
         xfd(1),   xfindproxy(1),    xfs(1),    xfwp(1),    xhost(1),
         xieperf(1),  xinit(1),  xkbbell(1),  xkbcomp(1),  xbkevd(1),
         xkbprint(1), xkbvleds(1), xkbwatch(1),  xkill(1),  xlogo(1),
         xlsatoms(1),  xlsclients(1),  xlsfonts(1),  xmag(1), xmh(1),
         xmodmap(1), xon(1), xprop(1), xrdb(1), xrefresh(1),  xrx(1),
         xset(1), xsetroot(1), xsm(1), xstdcmap(1), xterm(1), xwd(1),
         xwininfo(1),  xwud(1).   Xserver(1),   Xdec(1),   XmacII(1),
         Xsun(1),   Xnest(1),   Xvfb(1),  XF86_Acc(1),  XF86_Mono(1),
         XF86_SVGA(1), XF86_VGA16(1), XFree86(1), kbd_mode(1), Xlib -
         C  Language  X  Interface,  and  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics  - C
         Language Interface
    
    TRADEMARKS
         X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.
    
    AUTHORS
         A cast of thousands, literally.  The Release  6.4  distribu-
         tion  is  brought  to  you by The Open Group X Project Team.
         The names of all people who made it a reality will be  found
         in  the  individual  documents  and source files.  The The X
         Project Team staff members responsible for this release are:
         Arthur  Barstow,  Kaleb  Keithley,  Sekhar  Makkapati, M. S.
         Ramesh, Jingping Ge, Ken Flowers, and Dave Knorr.
    
         The X Window System standard was originally developed at the
         Laboratory  for Computer Science at the Massachusetts Insti-
         tute of Technology, and all rights thereto were assigned  to
         the  X  Consortium  on  January 1, 1994.  X Consortium, Inc.
         closed its doors on December 31, 1996.  All rights to the  X
         Window System have been assigned to The Open Group.
    
    
    
    


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