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convert ()
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  • Ключ convert обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.
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    NAME
         convert - converts an input file using one image  format  to
         an output file with the same or differing image format.
    
    SYNOPSIS
         convert [ options ... ] file [ file... ] file
    
    DESCRIPTION
         convert converts an input file using one image format to  an
         output file with the same or differing image format.
    
         convert recognizes the following image formats:
    
    
         Tag    Description
    
                -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
         AVS    AVS X image file.
    
         BIE+   Joint Bi-level Image experts Group  file  interchange
                format.
    
         BMP+   Microsoft Windows bitmap image file.
    
         BMP24+ Microsoft Windows 24-bit bitmap image file.
    
         CGM    Computer Graphics Metafile.
    
         CMYK   Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and black bytes.
    
         DCX+   ZSoft IBM PC multi-page Paintbrush file.
    
         DIB    Microsoft Windows bitmap image file.
    
         DICOM  Medical image file.
    
         EPDF   Encapsulated Portable Document Format.
    
         EPI    Adobe Encapsulated PostScript Interchange format.
    
         EPS    Adobe Encapsulated PostScript file.
    
         EPS2   Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript file.
    
         EPSF   Adobe Encapsulated PostScript file.
    
         EPSI   Adobe Encapsulated PostScript Interchange format.
    
         EPT    Adobe Encapsulated PostScript Interchange format with
                TIFF preview.
    
         FAX+   Group 3.
    
         FIG    TransFig image format.
    
         FITS   Flexible Image Transport System.
    
         FPX    FlashPix Format.
    
         GIF+   CompuServe graphics interchange format; 8-bit color.
    
         GIF87+ CompuServe graphics interchange format;  8-bit  color
                (version 87a).
    
         GRAY   Raw gray bytes.
    
         GRADIENT
                gradual passing from one shade  to  another.  Specify
                the   desired   shading   as   the   filename   (e.g.
                gradient:red-blue).
    
         GRANITE
                granite texture.
    
         HDF+   Hierarchical Data Format.
    
         HISTOGRAM
    
         HPGL   HP-GL plotter language.
    
         HTML   Hypertext Markup Language with  a  client-side  image
                map.
    
         JBIG+  Joint Bi-level Image experts Group  file  interchange
                format.
    
         JPEG   Joint  Photographic  Experts   Group   JFIF   format;
                compressed 24-bit color.
    
         ICO    Microsoft icon.
    
         LABEL  text image.
    
         MAP    Red, green, and blue colormap bytes followed  by  the
                image colormap indexes.
    
         MIFF+  Magick image file format.  MNG Multiple-image Network
                Graphics.
    
         MONO   Bi-level bitmap in least-significant-byte (LSB) first
                order.
    
         MPEG+  Motion Picture Experts Group file interchange format.
         MTV+   MTV Raytracing image format.
    
         NETSCAPE
                Netscape 216 color cube.
    
         NULL   NULL image.
    
         PBM+   Portable bitmap format (black and white).
    
         PCD    Photo CD.  The maximum resolution written is  512x768
                pixels.
    
         PCL    Page Control Language.
    
         PCX    ZSoft IBM PC Paintbrush file.
    
         PDF+   Portable Document Format.
    
         PGM+   Portable graymap format (gray scale).
    
         PICT   Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT file.
    
         PIX    Alias/Wavefront RLE image format.
    
         PLASMA plasma fractal image.  Specify the base color as  the
                filename  (e.g.  plasma:gray).    Use fractal to ini-
                tialize to a random value (e.g. plasma:fractal).
    
         PNG    Portable Network Graphics.
    
         PNM+   Portable anymap.
    
         PPM+   Portable pixmap format (color).
    
         PS+    Adobe PostScript file.
    
         PSD    Adobe Photoshop bitmap file.
    
         PS2+   Adobe Level II PostScript file.
    
         P7     Xv's visual schnauzer format.
    
         RAD    Radiance image format.
    
         RGB    Raw red, green, and blue bytes.
    
         RGBA   Raw red, green, blue and matte bytes.
    
         RLA    Alias/Wavefront image file; read only
    
         RLE    Utah Run length encoded image file; read only.
    
         SGI+   Irix RGB image file.
    
         SHTML  Hypertext Markup Language with  a  client-side  image
                map.
    
         SUN+   SUN Rasterfile.
    
         TEXT   raw text file; read only.
    
         TGA+   Truevision Targa image file.
    
         TIFF+  Tagged Image File Format.
    
         TIFF24+
                24-bit Tagged Image File Format.
    
         TILE   tile image with a texture.
    
         TIM    PSX TIM file.
    
         TTF    TrueType font file.
    
         UIL    X-Motif UIL table.
    
         UYVY   Interleaved YUV.
    
         VICAR  read only.
    
         VID    Visual Image Directory.
    
         VIFF+  Khoros Visualization image file.
    
         WIN    select image from or display image to  your  computer
                screen.
    
         X      select image from or display image to your  X  server
                screen.
    
         XC     constant  image  of  X  server  color.   Specify  the
                desired color as the filename (e.g. xc:yellow).
    
         XBM    X11 bitmap file.
    
         XPM    X Windows system pixmap file (color).
    
         XWD    X Windows system window dump file (color).
    
         YUV+   CCIR 601 4:1:1 file.
    
                Note, a format delineated with + means that  if  more
                than  one  image  is specified, it is combined into a
                single multi-image file.  Use +adjoin if you  want  a
                single image produced for each frame.
    
                Raw images are expected to have one  byte  per  pixel
                unless ImageMagick is compiled in 16-bit mode.  Here,
                the raw data is expected to be stored two  bytes  per
                pixel in most-significant-byte-first order.
    
    
    EXAMPLES
         To convert a MIFF image of a cockatoo to a SUN raster image,
         use:
    
              convert cockatoo.miff sun:cockatoo.ras
    
         To convert a multi-page Postscript  document  to  individual
         FAX pages, use:
    
              convert -monochrome document.ps fax:page
    
         To convert a TIFF image to a Postscript  A4  page  with  the
         image in the lower left-hand corner, use:
    
              convert -page A4+0+0 image.tiff document.ps
    
         To convert a raw GRAY image with a  128  byte  header  to  a
         portable graymap, use:
    
              convert -size 768x5.2.228 gray:raw image.pgm
    
         To convert a Photo CD image to a TIFF image, use:
    
              convert -size 1536x1024 img0009.pcd image.tiff
              convert img0009.pcd[4] image.tiff
    
         To create a visual image directory of all your JPEG  images,
         use:
    
              convert 'vid:*.jpg' directory.miff
    
         To annotate an image with blue  text  using  font  12x24  at
         position (100,100), use:
    
              convert -font helvetica -fill blue -draw "text 100,100 Cockatoo" bird.jpg bird.miff
    
         To tile a 640x480 image with a JPEG texture with bumps use:
    
              convert -size 640x480 tile:bumps.jpg tiled.png
    
         To surround an icon with an ornamental border  to  use  with
         Mosaic(1), use:
    
              convert -mattecolor #ccc -frame 6x6 bird.jpg icon.png
    
         To  create  a  GIF  animation  image  from  a  DNA  molecule
         sequence, use:
    
              convert -delay 20 dna.* dna.gif
    
    
    OPTIONS
         -adjoin
              join images into a single multi-image file.
    
              By default, all images of an image sequence are  stored
              in the same file.  However, some formats (e.g. JPEG) do
              not support more  than  one  image  and  are  saved  to
              separate files.  Use +adjoin to force this behavior.
    
         -antialias
              remove pixel aliasing.
    
         -append
              append an image sequence.
    
              All the input  images  must  have  the  same  width  or
              height.   Images  of the same width are stacked top-to-
              bottom.  Images of the same height  are  stacked  left-
              to-right.   Use  +append  to  stack  rectangular images
              left-to-right.
    
         -average
              averages an image sequence.
    
         -blur <radius>x<sigma>
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator  of  the  given
              radius and standard deviation (sigma).
    
         -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of  color.   See  X(1)
              for details about the geometry specification.
    
         -bordercolor color
              the border color.
    
         -box color
              set the color of  the  annotation  bounding  box.   See
              -draw or for further details.
    
              See X(1) for details about the color specification.
    
         -cache threshold
              megabytes of memory available to the pixel cache.
    
              Image pixels are stored in memory until 80 megabytes of
              memory have been consumed.  Subsequent pixel operations
              are cached on disk.  Operations to memory are  signifi-
              cantly faster but if your computer does not have a suf-
              ficient amount of free memory you may  want  to  adjust
              this threshold value.
    
         -charcoal radius
              simulate a charcoal drawing.
    
         -coalesce
              merge a sequence of images.
    
         -colorize value
              colorize the image with the fill color.
    
              Specify the amount of  colorization  as  a  percentage.
              You  can apply separate colorization values to the red,
              green, and blue channels of the image with a  coloriza-
              tion value list delineated with slashes (e.g. 0/0/50).
    
         -colors value
              preferred number of colors in the image.
    
              The actual number of colors in the image  may  be  less
              than  your  request,  but  never more.  Note, this is a
              color reduction option.  Images with less unique colors
              than specified with this option will have any duplicate
              or unused colors removed.   Refer  to  quantize(9)  for
              more details.
    
              Note,  options  -dither,  -colorspace,  and  -treedepth
              affect the color reduction algorithm.
    
         -colorspace value
              the type of colorspace: GRAY, OHTA,  RGB,  Transparent,
              XYZ, YCbCr, YIQ, YPbPr, YUV, or CMYK.  Color reduction,
              by default, takes place in the RGB color space.  Empir-
              ical  evidence  suggests that distances in color spaces
              such as YUV  or  YIQ  correspond  to  perceptual  color
              differences  more  closely  than  do  distances  in RGB
              space.  These color spaces may give better results when
              color reducing an image.  Refer to quantize(9) for more
              details.
    
              The Transparent color space behaves uniquely in that it
              preserves the matte channel of the image if it exists.
    
              The -colors or -monochrome option is required for  this
              option to take effect.
    
         -comment string
              annotate an image with a comment.
    
              Use this option to assign a  specific  comment  to  the
              image.   You  can  include  the  image  filename, type,
              width, height, or other image attributes  by  embedding
              special format characters:
    
                  %b   file size
                  %c   comment
                  %d   directory
                  %e   filename extention
                  %f   filename
                  %h   height
                  %i   input filename
                  %l   label
                  %m   magick
                  %n   number of scenes
                  %o   output filename
                  %p   page number
                  %q   quantum depth
                  %s   scene number
                  %t   top of filename
                  %u   unique temporary filename
                  %w   width
                  %x   x resolution
                  %y   y resolution
                  \n   newline
                  \r   carriage return
    
              For example,
    
                   -comment "%m:%f %wx%h"
    
              produces an image comment of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for
              an  image  titled  bird.miff and whose width is 512 and
              height is 480.
    
              If the first character of string is @, the  image  com-
              ment  is read from a file titled by the remaining char-
              acters in the string.
    
         -compress type
              the type of image compression: None, BZip, Fax, Group4,
              JPEG, LZW, RunlengthEncoded, or Zip.
    
              Specify +compress to  store  the  binary  image  in  an
              uncompressed  format.   The  default is the compression
              type of the specified image file.
    
         -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast.
    
              This option enhances the intensity differences  between
              the  lighter  and  darker  elements  of the image.  Use
              -contrast to enhance the image or +contrast  to  reduce
              the image contrast.
    
         -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image.   See
              X(1) for details about the geometry specification.
    
              To specify a percentage width or height instead, append
              %.  For example to crop the image by ten percent on all
              sides of the image, use -crop 10%.
    
              Omit the x and y offset to generate one or more  subim-
              ages of a uniform size.
    
              Use cropping to crop a particular  area  of  an  image.
              Use  -crop  0x0  to  trim edges that are the background
              color.  Add an x and y offset to leave a portion of the
              trimmed edges with the image.
    
         -cycle amount
              displace image colormap by amount.
    
              Amount defines the number of  positions  each  colormap
              entry is shifted.
    
         -deconstruct
              break down an image sequence into constituent parts.
    
         -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing.
    
              This option is useful for regulating the animation of a
              sequence  of GIF images within Netscape.  1/100ths of a
              second must expire before the redisplay  of  the  image
              sequence.  The default is no delay between each showing
              of the image sequence.
    
              You can specify a  delay  range  (e.g.  -delay  10-500)
              which sets the minimum and maximum delay.
    
         -density <width>x<height>
              vertical and horizontal resolution  in  pixels  of  the
              image.
    
              This option specifies an image density when decoding  a
              Postscript  or  Portable Document page.  The default is
              72 pixels per  inch  in  the  horizontal  and  vertical
              direction.  This option is used in concert with -page.
    
         -depth value
              depth of the image.  This is the number of  bits  in  a
              pixel.  The only acceptable values are 8 or 16.
    
         -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image.
    
         -display host:display[.screen]
              specifies the X server to contact; see X(1).
    
         -dispose method
              GIF disposal method.
    
              Here are the valid methods:
    
                   0    No disposal specified.
                   1    Do not dispose between frames.
                   2    Overwrite frame with background color from header.
                   3    Overwrite with previous frame.
    
         -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image.
    
              The basic strategy of dithering is to  trade  intensity
              resolution  for  spatial  resolution  by  averaging the
              intensities  of  several  neighboring  pixels.   Images
              which  suffer  from  severe  contouring  when  reducing
              colors can be improved with this option.
    
              The -colors or -monochrome option is required for  this
              option to take effect.
    
              Use  +dither  to  render  Postscript  without  text  or
              graphic aliasing.
    
         -draw string
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives.
    
              Use this option to annotate an image with one  or  more
              graphic primitives.  The primitives include
    
                   point
                   line
                   rectangle
                   roundRectangle
                   arc
                   ellipse
                   circle
                   polyline
                   polygon
                   bezier
                   path
                   color
                   matte
                   text
                   image
    
              Point, line, color, matte, text, and image each require
              a  single  coordinate.   Line  requires a start and end
              coordinate, while rectangle expects an upper  left  and
              lower right coordinate.  Circle has a center coordinate
              and a coordinate on the outer edge.  Use  Arc  to  cir-
              cumscribe  an  arc  within a rectangle.  Arcs require a
              start and end point as well as the degree  of  rotation
              (e.g. 130,30 200,100 45,90). Use Ellipse to draw a par-
              tial ellipse centered at the given point  with  the  x-
              axis  and  y-axis  radius  and  start and end of arc in
              degrees (e.g. 100,100 100,150 0,360).   Finally,  poly-
              line  and  polygon require three or more coordinates to
              define  its  boundaries.   Coordinates   are   integers
              separated by an optional comma.  For example, to define
              a circle centered at 100,100 that  extends  to  150,150
              use:
    
                   -draw 'circle 100,100 150,150'
    
              Paths represent  an  outline  of  an  object  which  is
              defined  in  terms of moveto (set a new current point),
              lineto (draw a straight line), curveto  (draw  a  curve
              using a cubic bezier), arc (elliptical or circular arc)
              and closepath (close the current  shape  by  drawing  a
              line  to  the  last  moveto)  elements.  Compound paths
              (i.e., a path with subpaths, each consisting of a  sin-
              gle moveto followed by one or more line or curve opera-
              tions) are possible to allow  effects  such  as  "donut
              holes" in objects.
    
              Use color to change the color of a pixel.   Follow  the
              pixel coordinate with a method:
    
                   point
                   replace
                   floodfill
                   filltoborder
                   reset
    
              Consider the target pixel as  that  specified  by  your
              coordinate.   The  point  method  recolors  the  target
              pixel.  The replace  method  recolors  any  pixel  that
              matches  the  color  of  the  target  pixel.  Floodfill
              recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target
              pixel and is a neighbor,  whereas filltoborder recolors
              any neighbor  pixel  that  is  not  the  border  color.
              Finally, reset recolors all pixels.
    
              Use matte to the change the pixel matte value to  tran-
              sparent.   Follow  the  pixel  coordinate with a method
              (see the color primitive for a description of methods).
              The  point method changes the matte value of the target
              pixel.  The replace method changes the matte  value  of
              any  pixel  that matches the color of the target pixel.
              Floodfill changes the matte value  of  any  pixel  that
              matches  the  color of the target pixel and is a neigh-
              bor, whereas filltoborder changes the  matte  value  of
              any  neighbor  pixel  that  is  not the border color (-
              bordercolor).  Finally reset changes the matte value of
              all pixels.
    
              Use text to annotate an image with  text.   Follow  the
              text  coordinates  with  a  string.   If the string has
              embedded spaces, enclose it in double quotes.   Option-
              ally  you  can include the image filename, type, width,
              height, or other image attribute by  embedding  special
              format characters.  See -comment for details.
    
              For example,
    
                   -draw 'text 100,100 "%m:%f %wx%h"'
    
              annotates the image with MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for  an
              image  titled  bird.miff  and  whose  width  is 512 and
              height is 480.  To generate a Unicode character  (True-
              Type  fonts  only),  embed  the  code as an escaped hex
              string (e.g. \0x30a3).
    
              Use image to composite an  image  with  another  image.
              Follow  the  image primitive with a composite operator,
              image position, image size, and filename:
    
                   -draw 'image Over 100,100 225,225 image.jpg'
    
              If the first character of string is @, the text is read
              from  a  file titled by the remaining characters in the
              string.
    
              You can set the primitive color, font color,  and  font
              bounding  box color with -fill, -font, and -box respec-
              tively.  Options are processed in command line order so
              be sure to use -fill before the -draw option.
    
         -edge <radius>
              enhance the edges  of  the  image  with  a  convolution
              filter of the given radius.
    
         -emboss <radius>x<sigma>
              emboss the image with a convolution kernel of the given
              radius and standard deviation (sigma).
    
         -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image.
    
         -equalize
              perform histogram equalization to the image.
    
         -fill color
              color to use when filling  a  graphic  primitive.   See
              -draw for further details.
    
         -filter type
              use this type of filter when resizing an image.
    
              Use this option to affect the resizing operation of  an
              image (see -geometry).  Choose from these filters:
    
                   Point
                   Box
                   Triangle
                   Hermite
                   Hanning
                   Hamming
                   Blackman
                   Gaussian
                   Quadratic
                   Cubic
                   Catrom
                   Mitchell
                   Lanczos
                   Bessel
                   Sinc
    
              The default filter is Lanczos.
    
    
         -flip
              create a "mirror image" by reflecting the  image  scan-
              lines in the vertical direction.
    
         -flop
              create a "mirror image" by reflecting the  image  scan-
              lines in the horizontal direction.
    
         -font name
              use this font when annotating the image with text.
    
              If the font is a fully qualified X  server  font  name,
              the  font  is  obtained  from  an  X  server  (e.g. -*-
              helvetica-medium-r-*-*-12-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-*).  To use
              a TrueType font, precede the TrueType filename with a @
              (e.g.  @times.ttf).  Otherwise,  specify  a  Postscript
              font (e.g. helvetica).
    
         -
              frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border.  See X(1)
              for details about the geometry specification.
    
              The color of the border is  specified  with  the  -mat-
              tecolor command line option.
    
         -fuzz distance
              colors within this distance are considered equal.
    
              A number of algorithms search for a target  color.   By
              default  the  color  must be exact.  Use this option to
              match colors that are close to the target color in  RGB
              space.   For example, if you want to automatically trim
              the edges of an image with -crop 0x0 but the image  was
              scanned.   The  target background color may differ by a
              small  amount.   This  option  can  account  for  these
              differences.
    
         -gamma value
              level of gamma correction.
    
              The same color image displayed on two different  works-
              tations  may  look  different due to differences in the
              display monitor.  Use gamma correction  to  adjust  for
              this  color  difference.  Reasonable values extend from
              0.8 to 2.3.
    
              You can apply separate gamma values to the red,  green,
              and  blue channels of the image with a gamma value list
              delineated with slashes (e.g. 1.7/2.3/1.2).
    
              Use +gamma to set the image gamma level  without  actu-
              ally adjusting the image pixels.  This option is useful
              if the image is of a known gamma  but  not  set  as  an
              image attribute (e.g. PNG images).
    
         -gaussian <radius>x<sigma>
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator  of  the  given
              radius and standard deviation (sigma).
    
    offset>{%}{!}{<}{>}
         -geometry          <width>x<height>{+-
              }<x           offset>{+-}<y
              preferred size or location of the image when encoding.
    
              By default, the width and height  are  maximum  values.
              That is, the image is expanded or contracted to fit the
              width and height value  while  maintaining  the  aspect
              ratio of the image.  Append an exclamation point to the
              geometry to force the image size to  exactly  the  size
              you  specify.  For example, if you specify 640x480! the
              image width is set to 640 pixels and height to 480.  If
              only one factor is specified, both the width and height
              assume the value.
    
              To specify a percentage width or height instead, append
              %.   The  image  size  is  multiplied  by the width and
              height percentages to obtain  the  final  image  dimen-
              sions.   To  increase the size of an image, use a value
              greater than 100 (e.g. 125%).  To decrease  an  image's
              size, use a percentage less than 100.
    
              Use > to change the dimensions of the image only if its
              size exceeds the geometry specification.  < resizes the
              image only if its dimensions is less than the  geometry
              specification.   For  example,  if you specify 640x480>
              and the image size is 512x512, the image size does  not
              change.   However,  if  the  image  is 1024x1024, it is
              resized to 640x480.
    
              There are 72 pixels per inch in Postscript coordinates.
    
         -gravity type
              direction text gravitates to when annotating the image:
              NorthWest,   North,   NorthEast,  West,  Center,  East,
              SouthWest, South,  SouthEast.   See  X(1)  for  details
              about the gravity specification.
    
              The direction you choose specifies  where  to  position
              the text when annotating the image.  For example Center
              gravity forces the  text  to  be  centered  within  the
              image.  By default, the text gravity is NorthWest.
    
         -implode factor
              implode image pixels about the center.  Specify  factor
              as  the  percent  implosion (0 - 99.9%) or explosion (-
              99.9 - 0%).
    
         -intent type
              use this type of rendering  intent  when  managing  the
              image color.
    
              Use this option to affect the color  management  opera-
              tion  of  an  image  (see  -cms).   Choose  from  these
              intents:
    
                   Absolute
                   Perceptual
                   Relative
                   Saturation
    
              The default rendering intent is undefined.
    
    
         -interlace type
              the type of interlacing scheme: None, Line,  Plane,  or
              Partition.  The default is None.
    
              This option is used to specify the type of  interlacing
              scheme  for  raw  image formats such as RGB or YUV.  No
              means do not  interlace  (RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB...),  Line
              uses                scanline                interlacing
              (RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...), and Plane  uses
              plane  interlacing (RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...).  Par-
              tition is like plane except the  different  planes  are
              saved  to individual files (e.g.  image.R, image.G, and
              image.B).
    
              Use Line, or Plane to create an interlaced GIF or  pro-
              gressive JPEG image.
    
         -label name
              assign a label to an image.
    
              Use this option to  assign  a  specific  label  to  the
              image.   Optionally you can include the image filename,
              type, width, height, or scene number in  the  label  by
              embedding  special  format characters. See -comment for
              details.
    
              For example,
    
                   -label "%m:%f %wx%h"
    
              produces an image label of MIFF:bird.miff  512x480  for
              an  image  titled  bird.miff and whose width is 512 and
              height is 480.
    
              If the first character of string is @, the image  label
              is  read from a file titled by the remaining characters
              in the string.
    
              When converting  to  Postscript,  use  this  option  to
              specify  a  header  string  to  print  above the image.
              Specify the label font with -font.
    
         -layer type
              the type of layer: Red, Green, Blue, or Matte.
    
              Use this option to extract a particular layer from  the
              image.   Matte,  for  example, is useful for extracting
              the opacity values from an image.
    
         -loop iterations
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation.
    
              A value other than zero forces the animation to  repeat
              itself up to iterations times.
    
         -map filename
              choose a particular set of colors from this image.
    
              By default, color reduction chooses an optimal  set  of
              colors  that best represent the original image.  Alter-
              natively, you can choose a  particular  set  of  colors
              from  an  image  file  with  this  option.  Use +map to
              reduce all images provided on the  command  line  to  a
              single  optimal  set  of colors that best represent all
              the images.
    
         -matte
              store matte channel if  the  image  has  one  otherwise
              create an opaque one.
    
         -median radius
              apply a median filter to the image.
    
         -modulate value
              vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image.
    
              Specify the percent change  in  brightness,  the  color
              saturation, and the color hue separated by commas.  For
              example, to increase the color brightness  by  20%  and
              decrease  the color saturation by 10% and leave the hue
              unchanged, use: -modulate 120,90.
    
         -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white.
    
         -morph
              morphs an image sequence.
    
              Both the image pixels and size  are  linearly  interpo-
              lated  to  give the appearance of a meta-morphosis from
              one image to the next.
    
         -mosaic
              create an mosaic from an image sequence.
    
         -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color (white
              becomes black, yellow becomes blue, etc.).
    
              The red, green, and blue intensities of  an  image  are
              negated.  Use +negate to only negate the grayscale pix-
              els of the image.
    
         -noise radius
              add or reduce the noise in an image.
    
              The principal function of noise peak elimination filter
              is to smooth the objects within an image without losing
              edge information and without creating undesired  struc-
              tures.  The central idea of the algorithm is to replace
              a pixel with its next neighbor in value within a  pixel
              window,  if  this  pixel has been found to be noise.  A
              pixel is defined as noise if and only if this pixel  is
              a  maximum  or  minimum  within  the pixel window.  Use
              radius to specify the width of the neighborhood.
    
              Use +noise followed by a noise type to add noise to  an
              image.  Choose from these noise types:
    
                  Uniform
                  Gaussian
                  Multiplicative
                  Impulse
                  Laplacian
                  Poisson
    
         -normalize
              transform image to span the full range of color values.
    
              This is a contrast enhancement technique.
    
         -opaque color
              change this color to the fill color within  the  image.
              See -fill for more details.
    
         -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x offset>{+-
              }<y offset>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of an image canvas.
    
              Use this  option  to  specify  the  dimensions  of  the
              Postscript page in dots per inch or a TEXT page in pix-
              els.  The choices for a Postscript page are:
    
                     11x17         792  1224
                     Ledger       1224   792
                     Legal         612  1008
                     Letter        612   792
                     LetterSmall   612   792
                     ArchE        2592  3456
                     ArchD        1728  2592
                     ArchC        1296  1728
                     ArchB         864  1296
                     ArchA         648   864
                     A0           2380  3368
                     A1           1684  2380
                     A2           1190  1684
                     A3            842  1190
                     A4            595   842
                     A4Small       595   842
                     A5            421   595
                     A6            297   421
                     A7            210   297
                     A8            148   210
                     A9            105   148
                     A10            74   105
                     B0           2836  4008
                     B1           2004  2836
                     B2           1418  2004
                     B3           1002  1418
                     B4            709  1002
                     B5            501   709
                     C0           2600  3677
                     C1           1837  2600
                     C2           1298  1837
                     C3            918  1298
                     C4            649   918
                     C5            459   649
                     C6            323   459
                     Flsa          612   936
                     Flse          612   936
                     HalfLetter    396   612
    
              For convenience you can specify the page size by  media
              (e.g.   A4,  Ledger,  etc.).   Otherwise, -page behaves
              much like -geometry (e.g. -page letter+43+43>).
    
              To position a GIF image, use -page {+-}<x offset>{+-}<y
              offset> (e.g. -page +100+200).
    
              For a  Postscript  page,  the  image  is  sized  as  in
              -geometry  and  positioned  relative  to the lower left
              hand  corner  of  the  page  by  {+-}<x   offset>{+-}<y
              offset>.   Use  -page  612x792>, for example, to center
              the image within the page.  If the image  size  exceeds
              the Postscript page, it is reduced to fit the page.
    
              The  default  page  dimensions  for  a  TEXT  image  is
              612x792.
    
              This option is used in concert with -density.
    
         -paint radius
              simulate an oil painting.
    
              Each pixel is replaced by the most frequent color in  a
              circular  neighborhood  whose  width  is specified with
              radius.
    
         -pointsize value
              pointsize of the Postscript font.
    
         -preview type
              image preview type.
    
              Use this option to affect the preview operation  of  an
              image  (e.g. convert -preview Gamma Preview:gamma.gif).
              Choose from these previews:
    
                   Rotate
                   Shear
                   Roll
                   Hue
                   Saturation
                   Brightness
                   Gamma
                   Spiff
                   Dull
                   Grayscale
                   Quantize
                   Despeckle
                   ReduceNoise
                   AddNoise
                   Sharpen
                   Blur
                   Threshold
                   Edge Detect
                   Spread
                   Shade
                   Raise
                   Segment
                   Solarize
                   Swirl
                   Implode
                   Wave
                   OilPaint
                   CharcoalDrawing
                   JPEG
    
              The default preview is JPEG.
    
         -profile filename
              add ICC color or IPTC newswire information  profile  to
              image.
    
              Use +profile icc or +profile iptc to remove the respec-
              tive profile.
    
         -quality value
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level.
    
              For the JPEG image format, quality is 0 (worst) to  100
              (best).  The default quality is 75.
    
              Quality for the MIFF and  PNG  image  format  sets  the
              amount  of image compression (quality / 10) and filter-
              type (quality % 10).  Compression quality values  range
              from  0  (worst) to 100 (best).  If filter-type is 4 or
              less, the specified filter-type is used for  all  scan-
              lines:
    
                  0: none
                  1: sub
                  2: up
                  3: average
                  4: Paeth
    
              If filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering  is  used  when
              quality  is greater than 50 and the image does not have
              a color map, otherwise no filtering is used.
    
              If filter-type is 6 or more,  adaptive  filtering  with
              minimum-sum-of-absolute-values is used.
    
              The default is quality is 75.  Which means  nearly  the
              best compression with adaptive filtering.
    
              For further information, see the PNG specification (RFC
              2083), <http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/TR>.
    
         -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges to create a  3-D  effect.
              See X(1) for details about the geometry specification.
    
              Use -raise to create a  raised  effect,  otherwise  use
              +raise.
    
         -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>
              apply options to a portion of the image.
    
              By default, any command line options are applied to the
              entire  image.  Use -region to restrict operations to a
              particular area of the image.
    
         -roll {+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally.  See X(1) for
              details about the geometry specification.
    
              A negative x offset rolls the image  left-to-right.   A
              negative y offset rolls the image top-to-bottom.
    
         -rotate degrees{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image.
              Use > to rotate the image only if its width exceeds the
              height.   < rotates the image only if its width is less
              than the height.  For example, if you specify -90>  and
              the  image size is 480x640, the image is not rotated by
              the specified angle.  However, if the image is 640x480,
              it is rotated by -90 degrees.
    
              Empty triangles left over from rotating the  image  are
              filled  with  the  color  defined as bordercolor (class
              borderColor).  See X(1) for details.
    
         -sample geometry
              scale image with pixel sampling.
    
         -scene value
              image scene number.
    
         -seed value
              pseudo-random number generator seed value.
    
         -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image by analyzing  the  histograms  of  the
              color  components  and identifying units that are homo-
              geneous with the fuzzy c-means technique.
    
              Specify cluster threshold as the number  of  pixels  in
              each  cluster  must exceed the the cluster threshold to
              be considered valid.   Smoothing  threshold  eliminates
              noise  in  the  second derivative of the histogram.  As
              the value is  increased,  you  can  expect  a  smoother
              second derivative.  The default is 1.5.  See IMAGE SEG-
              MENTATION for details.
    
         -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source.
    
              Specify azimuth and elevation as the  position  of  the
              light source.  Use +shade to return the shading results
              as a grayscale image.
    
         -sharpen <radius>x<sigma>
              sharpen the image with  a  Laplacian  operator  of  the
              given radius and standard deviation (sigma).
    
         -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis by a positive  or
              negative shear angle.
    
              Shearing slides one edge of an image along the X  or  Y
              axis,  creating  a parallelogram.  An X direction shear
              slides an edge along the X axis, while  a  Y  direction
              shear  slides  an edge along the Y axis.  The amount of
              the shear is controlled by a shear angle.  For X direc-
              tion  shears,  x  degrees is measured relative to the Y
              axis, and similarly, for Y direction shears  y  degrees
              is measured relative to the X axis.
    
              Empty triangles left over from shearing the  image  are
              filled  with  the  color  defined as bordercolor (class
              borderColor).  See X(1) for details.
    
         -size <width>x<height>+<offset>
              width and height of the image.
    
              Use this option to specify the width and height of  raw
              images  whose dimensions are unknown such as GRAY, RGB,
              or CMYK.  In addition to width and height, use -size to
              skip  any  header  information in the image or tell the
              number of colors in  a  MAP  image  file,  (e.g.  -size
              640x512+256).
    
              For Photo CD images, choose from these sizes:
    
                    192x128
                    384x256
                    768x512
                   1536x1024
                   3072x2048
    
              Finally, use this option to choose a particular resolu-
              tion  layer  of  a  JBIG  or  JPEG  image  (e.g.  -size
              1024x768).
    
         -solarize factor
              negate all pixels above the threshold  level.   Specify
              factor  as  the percent threshold of the intensity (0 -
              99.9%).
    
              This option produces a solarization  effect  seen  when
              exposing  a  photographic  film  to  light  during  the
              development process.
    
         -spread amount
              displace image pixels by a random amount.
    
              Amount defines the size of the neighborhood around each
              pixel to choose a candidate pixel to swap.
    
         -stroke color
              color to use when stoking  a  graphic  primitive.   See
              -draw for further details.
    
         -strokewidth value
              set the stroke width.  See -draw for further details.
    
         -swirl degrees
              swirl image pixels about the center.
    
              Degrees defines the tightness of the swirl.
    
         -texture filename
              name of texture to tile onto the image background.
    
         -threshold value
              threshold the image.
    
              Create a bi-level image such that any  pixel  intensity
              that  is  equal  or exceeds the threshold is reassigned
              the maximum intensity otherwise the minimum intensity.
    
         -tile filename
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive.
    
         -transparency color
              make this color transparent within the image.
    
         -treedepth value
              Normally, this integer value is zero or one.  A zero or
              one  tells  convert  to choose a optimal tree depth for
              the color reduction algorithm.
    
              An optimal depth generally allows the best  representa-
              tion of the source image with the fastest computational
              speed and the least amount  of  memory.   However,  the
              default  depth  is  inappropriate  for some images.  To
              assure the best representation, try  values  between  2
              and  8  for  this  parameter.  Refer to quantize(9) for
              more details.
    
              The -colors option is required for this option to  take
              effect.
    
         -units type
              the type of image resolution: Undefined, PixelsPerInch,
              or PixelsPerCentimeter.  The default is Undefined.
    
         -verbose
              print detailed information about the image.
    
              This information is printed: image scene number;  image
              name;   converted  image  name;  image size;  the image
              class (DirectClass or PseudoClass);  the  total  number
              of  unique  colors;   and the number of seconds to read
              and transform the image.
    
         -view string
              FlashPix viewing parameters.
    
         -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave.
    
              Specify amplitude and wavelength to effect the  charac-
              teristics of the wave.
    
         Options are processed in command line order.  Any option you
         specify  on  the  command line remains in effect until it is
         explicitly changed by specifying the  option  again  with  a
         different  effect.  Some options only effect the decoding of
         images and others only the encoding.
    
         By default, the image format  is  determined  by  its  magic
         number.  To  specify  a particular image format, precede the
         filename with  an  image  format  name  and  a  colon  (i.e.
         ps:image)  or  specify the image type as the filename suffix
         (i.e. image.ps).  See DESCRIPTION for a list of  valid  for-
         mats.
    
         When you specify X as your image type, the filename has spe-
         cial  meaning.   It  specifies  an  X window by id, name, or
         root.  If no filename is specified, the window  is  selected
         by clicking the mouse in the desired window.
    
         Specify input_file as - for standard input, output_file as -
         for  standard output.  If input_file has the extension .Z or
         .gz, the file is  uncompressed  with  uncompress  or  gunzip
         respectively.   If  output_file has the extension .Z or .gz,
         the file size is compressed  using  with  compress  or  gzip
         respectively.   Finally,  precede the image file name with |
         to pipe to or from a system command.
    
         Use an optional index enclosed in brackets after a file name
         to  specify  a  desired subimage of a multi-resolution image
         format like Photo CD (e.g. img0001.pcd[4]) or  a  range  for
         MPEG  images (e.g. video.mpg[50-75]).  A subimage specifica-
         tion can be  disjoint  (e.g.  image.tiff[2,7,4]).   For  raw
         images,  specify  a  subimage  with  a  geometry (e.g. -size
         640x512 image.rgb[320x256+50+50]).
    
         Single images are written with  the  filename  you  specify.
         However,  multi-part  images  (e.g.  a multi-page Postscript
         document  with  +adjoin  specified)  are  written  with  the
         filename followed by a period (.) and the scene number.  You
         can change  this  behavior  by  embedding  a  printf  format
         specification in the file name.  For example,
    
              image%02d.miff
    
         converts files image00.miff, image01.miff, etc.
    
         The % character is always interpreted in  output  filenames.
         To get a % character in the filename, use %%.
    
         Prepend an at sign (@) to a filename to read a list of image
         filenames  from  that file.  This is convenient in the event
         you have too many image filenames  to  fit  on  the  command
         line.
    
    IMAGE SEGMENTATION
         Use -segment to segment an image by analyzing the histograms
         of the color components and identifying units that are homo-
         geneous with the fuzzy c-means technique.   The  scale-space
         filter analyzes the histograms of the three color components
         of the image and identifies a set of classes.   The  extents
         of  each  class  is  used to coarsely segment the image with
         thresholding.  The  color  associated  with  each  class  is
         determined  by  the  mean  color  of  all  pixels within the
         extents of a particular class.   Finally,  any  unclassified
         pixels  are  assigned to the closest class with the fuzzy c-
         means technique.
    
         The fuzzy c-Means algorithm can be summarized as follows:
    
              o Build a histogram, one for each  color  component  of
              the image.
    
              o For each histogram,  successively  apply  the  scale-
              space  filter and build an interval tree of zero cross-
              ings in the second derivative at each  scale.   Analyze
              this  scale-space  ``fingerprint''  to  determine which
              peaks or valleys in the histogram are most predominant.
    
              o The fingerprint defines intervals on the axis of  the
              histogram.  Each interval contains either a minima or a
              maxima in the original signal.  If each color component
              lies  within  the  maxima  interval, that pixel is con-
              sidered ``classified'' and is assigned an unique  class
              number.
    
              o Any pixel that fails to be classified  in  the  above
              thresholding pass is classified using the fuzzy c-Means
              technique.  It  is  assigned  to  one  of  the  classes
              discovered in the histogram analysis phase.
    
         The fuzzy c-Means technique attempts to cluster a  pixel  by
         finding the local minima of the generalized within group sum
         of squared error objective function.  A pixel is assigned to
         the  closest  class of which the fuzzy membership has a max-
         imum value.
    
         For additional information see
    
              Young Won  Lim,  Sang  Uk  Lee,  "On  The  Color  Image
              Segmentation  Algorithm  Based  on the Thresholding and
              the Fuzzy  c-Means  Techniques",  Pattern  Recognition,
              Volume 23, Number 9, pages 935-952, 1990.
    
    ENVIRONMENT
         DISPLAY
              To get the default host, display number, and screen.
    
    SEE ALSO
         display(1), animate(1), import(1),  montage(1),  mogrify(1),
         combine(1), xtp(1)
    
    COPYRIGHT
         Copyright (C) 2001 ImageMagick Studio, a non-profit  organi-
         zation dedicated to making software imaging solutions freely
         available.
    
         Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any  person
         obtaining  a copy of this software and associated documenta-
         tion files ("ImageMagick"), to deal in  ImageMagick  without
         restriction, including without limitation the rights to use,
         copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or
         sell  copies  of  ImageMagick, and to permit persons to whom
         the ImageMagick is furnished to do so, subject to  the  fol-
         lowing conditions:
    
         The above copyright notice and this permission notice  shall
         be  included  in  all  copies  or  substantial  portions  of
         ImageMagick.
    
         The software is provided "as is", without  warranty  of  any
         kind,  express  or implied, including but not limited to the
         warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular pur-
         pose  and  noninfringement.   In  no event shall ImageMagick
         Studio be liable for any claim, damages or other  liability,
         whether in an action of contract, tort or otherwise, arising
         from, out of or in connection with ImageMagick or the use or
         other dealings in ImageMagick.
    
         Except  as  contained  in  this  notice,  the  name  of  the
         ImageMagick  Studio shall not be used in advertising or oth-
         erwise to  promote  the  sale,  use  or  other  dealings  in
         ImageMagick  without  prior  written  authorization from the
         ImageMagick Studio.
    
    AUTHORS
         John Cristy, E.I. du Pont  De  Nemours  and  Company  Incor-
         porated
    
    
    
    


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