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le (7)
  • le (4) ( FreeBSD man: Специальные файлы /dev/* )
  • >> le (7) ( Solaris man: Макропакеты и соглашения )
         le, lebuffer, ledma - Am7990 (LANCE) Ethernet device driver
         The Am7990 ("LANCE") Ethernet driver  is  a  multi-threaded,
         loadable,  clonable,  STREAMS hardware driver supporting the
         connectionless Data Link Provider Interface, dlpi(7P) over a
         LANCE  Ethernet controller.  The motherboard and add-in SBus
         LANCE controllers of several varieties are supported. Multi-
         ple   LANCE controllers installed within the system are sup-
         ported by the driver. The le driver provides  basic  support
         for  the  LANCE hardware. Functions include chip initializa-
         tion, frame transmit and receive, multicast and  promiscuous
         support, and error recovery and reporting.
         The cloning character-special  device  /dev/le  is  used  to
         access all  LANCE controllers installed within the system.
         The lebuffer and ledma device drivers are bus nexus  drivers
         which  cooperate  with  the le leaf driver in supporting the
         LANCE hardware functions over  several  distinct  slave-only
         and   DVMA  LANCE  -based Ethernet controllers. The lebuffer
         and ledma bus nexi drivers are not  directly  accessible  to
         the user.
      le and DLPI
         The le driver is a "style 2" Data Link Service provider. All
         M_PROTO  and M_PCPROTO type messages are interpreted as DLPI
         primitives.   Valid   DLPI   primitives   are   defined   in
         <sys/dlpi.h>.  Refer  to   dlpi(7P) for more information. An
         explicit DL_ATTACH_REQ message by the user  is  required  to
         associate  the opened stream with a particular device (ppa).
         The ppa ID is interpreted as an  unsigned long data type and
         indicates  the  corresponding device instance (unit) number.
         An error (DL_ERROR_ACK) is returned by the driver if the ppa
         field  value  does not correspond to a valid device instance
         number for this system. The device is initialized  on  first
         attach and de-initialized (stopped) on last detach.
         The values returned by the driver in the DL_INFO_ACK  primi-
         tive  in  response  to  the DL_INFO_REQ from the user are as
            o  The maximum   SDU  is  1500  (ETHERMTU  -  defined  in
            o  The minimum  SDU is 0.
            o  The dlsap address length is 8.
            o  The  MAC type is DL_ETHER.
            o  The sap  length  value  is  -2  meaning  the  physical
               address  component is followed immediately by a 2 byte
               sap component within the DLSAP address.
            o  The service mode is DL_CLDLS.
            o  No  optional  quality  of  service  (QOS)  support  is
               included at present so the  QOS fields are 0.
            o  The provider style is DL_STYLE2.
            o  The version is DL_VERSION_2.
            o  The broadcast address value is Ethernet/IEEE broadcast
               address (0xFFFFFF).
         Once  in  the  DL_ATTACHED  state,  the  user  must  send  a
         DL_BIND_REQ  to  associate  a particular SAP (Service Access
         Pointer) with the stream. The le driver interprets  the  sap
         field within the DL_BIND_REQ as an Ethernet "type" therefore
         valid values for the sap field are in the [0-0xFFFF]  range.
         Only  one  Ethernet  type  can be bound to the stream at any
         If the user selects a sap with a value of  0,  the  receiver
         will  be in "802.3 mode". All frames received from the media
         having a "type" field in the range [0-1500] are  assumed  to
         be 802.3 frames and are routed up all open Streams which are
         bound to sap value 0.  If more than one Stream is in  "802.3
         mode" then the frame will be duplicated and routed up multi-
         ple Streams as DL_UNITDATA_IND messages.
         In transmission, the driver checks  the  sap  field  of  the
         DL_BIND_REQ  if  the  sap value is 0, and if the destination
         type field is in the range [0-1500]. If either is true,  the
         driver  computes  the  length  of the message, not including
         initial M_PROTO mblk  (message  block),  of  all  subsequent
         DL_UNITDATA_REQ  messages  and  transmits  802.3 frames that
         have this value in the MAC frame header length field.
         The le driver DLSAP address format consists of  the  6  byte
         physical  (Ethernet)  address component followed immediately
         by the 2 byte sap (type) component producing an 8 byte DLSAP
         address. Applications should not hardcode to this particular
         implementation-specific DLSAP address format but use  infor-
         mation  returned in the DL_INFO_ACK primitive to compose and
         decompose  DLSAP  addresses.  The  sap  length,  full  DLSAP
         length,  and  sap/physical  ordering are included within the
         DL_INFO_ACK. The physical address length can be computed  by
         subtracting  the  sap  length  from  the  full DLSAP address
         length or by issuing  the  DL_PHYS_ADDR_REQ  to  obtain  the
         current physical address associated with the stream.
         Once in the DL_BOUND state, the user may transmit frames  on
         the  Ethernet  by sending DL_UNITDATA_REQ messages to the le
         driver. The le driver will route received Ethernet frames up
         all  those open and bound streams having a sap which matches
         the Ethernet type  as  DL_UNITDATA_IND  messages.   Received
         Ethernet  frames  are duplicated and routed up multiple open
         streams if necessary. The DLSAP address contained within the
         DL_UNITDATA_REQ  and  DL_UNITDATA_IND  messages  consists of
         both the sap (type) and physical (Ethernet) components.
         In addition to the mandatory connectionless DLPI message set
         the driver additionally supports the following primitives.
      le Primitives
         The  DL_ENABMULTI_REQ   and   DL_DISABMULTI_REQ   primitives
         enable/disable   reception  of  individual  multicast  group
         addresses.  A set of multicast addresses may be  iteratively
         created and modified on a per-stream basis using these prim-
         itives. These primitives are accepted by the driver  in  any
         state following DL_ATTACHED.
         The DL_PROMISCON_REQ and DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ  primitives  with
         the   DL_PROMISC_PHYS   flag   set  in  the  dl_level  field
         enables/disables  reception  of  all  ("promiscuous   mode")
         frames  on the media including frames generated by the local
         When  used   with   the   DL_PROMISC_SAP   flag   set   this
         enables/disables   reception  of  all  sap  (Ethernet  type)
         values. When used with the DL_PROMISC_MULTI  flag  set  this
         enables/disables reception of all multicast group addresses.
         The effect of each is  always  on  a  per-stream  basis  and
         independent  of  the other sap and physical level configura-
         tions on this stream or other streams.
         The DL_PHYS_ADDR_REQ primitive returns the 6 octet  Ethernet
         address currently associated (attached) to the stream in the
         DL_PHYS_ADDR_ACK primitive.  This primitive is valid only in
         states following a successful DL_ATTACH_REQ.
         The DL_SET_PHYS_ADDR_REQ primitive changes the 6 octet  Eth-
         ernet   address  currently  associated  (attached)  to  this
         stream. The credentials  of  the  process  which  originally
         opened  this  stream  must be superuser.  Otherwise EPERM is
         returned in the DL_ERROR_ACK. This primitive is  destructive
         in  that  it  affects  all  other current and future streams
         attached to this device. An M_ERROR is  sent  up  all  other
         streams  attached to this device when this primitive is suc-
         cessful on this stream.  Once changed,  all  streams  subse-
         quently  opened and attached to this device will obtain this
         new physical address.  Once changed,  the  physical  address
         will  remain until this primitive is used to change the phy-
         sical address again or the  system  is  rebooted,  whichever
         comes first.
               le special character device.
               System wide default device driver properties
         netstat(1M), driver.conf(4), dlpi(7P), ie(7D)
         SPARCstation 10 Twisted-Pair Ethernet Link Test
         Twisted-Pair Ethernet Link Test
         le%d: msg too big:  %d
               The message length exceeded  ETHERMAX.
         le%d: Babble error - sent a packet longer than 1518 bytes
               While  transmitting  a  packet,  the  LANCE  chip  has
               noticed  that  the packet's length exceeds the maximum
               allowed for Ethernet. This error  indicates  a  kernel
         le%d: No carrier - transceiver cable problem?
               The LANCE chip has lost input to  its  carrier  detect
               pin while trying to transmit a packet.
         le%d: Memory Error!
               The LANCE chip timed out while trying to  acquire  the
               bus for a  DVMA transfer.
         If you are using twisted pair Ethernet (TPE), you need to be
         aware  of the link test feature.  The IEEE 10Base-T specifi-
         cation states that the link test should always be enabled at
         the host and the hub. Complications may arise because:
         1. Some older hubs do not provide link pulses
         2. Some hubs are configured to not send link pulses
         Under either of these two conditions the host translates the
         lack  of  link  pulses  into  a  link  failure  unless it is
         programmed to ignore link pulses.  To program your system to
         ignore  link  pulses (also known as disabling the link test)
         do the following at the OpenBoot PROM prompt:
                 TPE-LINK-TEST? = FALSE
         The   above   command   will   work   for   SPARCstation-10,
         SPARCstation-20  and  SPARCclassic  systems  that  come with
         built in twisted pair Ethernet ports.  For other systems and
         for  add-on  boards  with twisted pair Ethernet refer to the
         documentation that came with the system or board for  infor-
         mation on disabling the link test.
         SPARCstation-10, SPARCstation-20  and  SPARCclassic  systems
         come  with a choice of built in AUI (using an adapter cable)
         and TPE ports.  In Solaris 2.2 an auto-selection scheme  was
         implemented  in  the  le driver that will switch between AUI
         and TPE  depending  on  which  interface  is  active.  Auto-
         selection  uses  the presence or absence of the link test on
         the TPE interface as one indication of whether  that  inter-
         face  is  active.  In the special case where you wish to use
         TPE with the link-test disabled you should manually override
         auto-selection  so that the system will use only the twisted
         pair port.
         This override  can  be  performed  by  defining  the  cable-
         selection  property  in  the  options.conf file to force the
         system to use TPE or AUI as appropriate. The  example  below
         sets the cable selection to TPE.
         example# cd /kernel/drv
         example# echo 'cable-selection="tpe";' >> options.conf
         Note that the standard options.conf file contains  important
         information; the only change to the file should be the addi-
         tion of the cable-selection property.  Be  careful  to  type
         this  line  exactly as shown above, ensuring that you append
         to the existing file,  and  include  the  terminating  semi-
         colon.   Alternatively,  you can use a text editor to append
         the following line to the end of the file:
         Please refer to the SPARCstation  10  Twisted-Pair  Ethernet
         Link  Test  (801-2481-10),  Twisted-Pair  Ethernet Link Test
         (801-6184-10) and the driver.conf(4) man page for details of
         the syntax of driver configuration files.

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