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ncftp (1)
  • >> ncftp (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • ncftp (1) ( Linux man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
         ncftp - Browser program for the File Transfer Protocol
         ncftp [host]
         ncftp []
         The purpose of ncftp is to provide a powerful  and  flexible
         interface  to  the Internet standard File Transfer Protocol.
         It is intended to replace the stock ftp program  that  comes
         with the system.
         Although the program appears to be  rather  spartan,  you'll
         find  that  ncftp  has  a wealth of valuable performance and
         usage features.  The program was designed with  an  emphasis
         on usability, and it does as much as it can for you automat-
         ically so you can do what you  expect  to  do  with  a  file
         transfer program, which is transfer files between two inter-
         connected systems.
         Some  of  the  cooler  features  include  progress   meters,
         filename  completion,  command-line editing, background pro-
         cessing, auto-resume downloads, bookmarking,  cached  direc-
         tory  listings,  host  redialing, working with firewalls and
         proxies, downloading entire directory trees, etc., etc.
         The ncftp distribution comes with the  useful  utility  pro-
         grams  ncftpget(1) and ncftpput(1) which were designed to do
         command-line FTP.  In particular, they are  very  handy  for
         shell  scripts.   This  version  of  ncftp  no  longer  does
         command-line FTP, since the main ncftp program is more of  a
         browser-type program.
         Upon running the program you are presented a command  prompt
         where you type commands to the program's shell.  Usually you
         will want to open a remote filesystem to transfer  files  to
         and  from  your local machine's filesystem.  To do that, you
         need to know the symbolic name of the remote system, or  its
         Internet  Protocol  (IP)  address.   For example, a symbolic
         name might be ``,'' and its IP address  could
         be  ``''   To open a connection to that system,
         you use the program's open command:
         Both of these try to open the machine called typhoon at  the
         University of Nebraska.  Using the symbolic name is the pre-
         ferred way, because IP addresses may change without  notice,
         while the symbolic names usually stay the same.
         When you open a remote filesystem, you need to have  permis-
         sion.   The  FTP  Protocol's  authentication  system is very
         similar to that of logging in to your account.  You have  to
         give  an  account  name, and its password for access to that
         account's files.  However, most  remote  systems  that  have
         anything you might be interested in don't require an account
         name for use.  You can  often  get  anonymous  access  to  a
         remote  filesystem  and  exchange  files that have been made
         publicly accessible.  The program attempts to get  anonymous
         permission  to  a  remote  system by default.  What actually
         happens is that the program tries to  use  ``anonymous''  as
         the  account  name,  and  when prompted for a password, uses
         your E-mail address as a courtesy  to  the  remote  system's
         maintainer.   You can have the program try to use a specific
         account also.  That will be explained later.
         After the open command completes successfully, you are  con-
         nected  to  the remote system and logged in.  You should now
         see the command prompt change to reflect  the  name  of  the
         current  remote  directory.   To  see  what's in the current
         remote directory, you can use the program's ls and dir  com-
         mands.  The former is terse, preferring more remote files in
         less screen space, and the latter is  more  verbose,  giving
         detailed information about each item in the directory.
         You can use the program's cd command to move to other direc-
         tories  on  the  remote system.  The cd command behaves very
         much like the command of the same name  in  the  Bourne  and
         Korn shell.
         The purpose of the program is to exchange  data  with  other
         systems.   You  can  use the program's get command to copy a
         file from the remote system to your local system:
              get README.txt
         The program will display the progress of the transfer on the
         screen, so you can tell how much needs to be done before the
         transfer finishes.  When the transfer does finish, then  you
         can enter more commands to the program's command shell.
         You can use the program's put command to copy  a  file  from
         your system to the remote system:
              put something.tar
         When you are finished using the remote system, you can  open
         another one or use the quit
         Before quitting, you  may  want  to  save  the  current  FTP
         session's settings for later.  You can use the bookmark com-
         mand to save an entry into your $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks file.
         When  you use the bookmark command, you also specify a book-
         mark name, so the next time  instead  of  opening  the  full
         hostname  you  can use the name of the bookmark.  A bookmark
         acts just like one for your web browser,  so  it  saves  the
         remote  directory  you  were  in, the account name you used,
         etc., and other information it learned so that the next time
         you use the bookmark it should require as little effort from
         you as possible.
         help The first command to know is help.  If you just type
              from the command shell, the program prints the names of
              all of the supported commands.  From there, you can get
              specific help for  a  command  by  typing  the  command
              after, for example:
                   help open
              prints information about the open command.
              This command sets the  transfer  type  to  ASCII  text.
              This is useful for text-only transfers because the con-
              cept of text files differs between  operating  systems.
              For  example  on  UNIX, a text file denotes line breaks
              with the linefeed character, while  on  MS-DOS  a  line
              break  is  denoted  by both a carriage return character
              and  a  line  feed  character.   Therefore,  for   data
              transfers  that  you  consider the data as text you can
              use ascii to ensure that both  the  remote  system  and
              local   system   translate  accordingly.   The  default
              transfer  type  that  ncftp  uses  is  not  ASCII,  but
              straight binary.
         bgget and bgput
              These commands correspond to the get and  put  commands
              explained  below,  except  that  they do the job in the
              background.  Normally when you do a get then  the  pro-
              gram does the download immediately, and does not return
              control to you until the download completes.  The back-
              ground  transfers  are  nice  because  you can continue
              browsing the remote filesystem and even open other sys-
              tems.   In  fact, they are done by a daemon process, so
              even if you log off your UNIX host  the  daemon  should
              still do your transfers.  The daemon will also automat-
              ically continue to retry the transfers until they  fin-
              ish.   To  tell when background jobs have finished, you
              have to examine the $HOME/.ncftp/batchlog file, or  run
              the jobs command from within NcFTP.
              Both the bgget and bgput commands allow you to schedule
              when  to  do the transfers.  They take a ``-@'' parame-
              ter,  whose  argument   is   a   date   of   the   form
              YYYYMMDDhhmmss  (four  digit  year,  month,  day, hour,
              minute, second).  For example, to schedule  a  download
              at 3 AM on November 6, you could try:
                   bgget -@ 19971106030000 /pub/idstuff/quake/
              This command tells ncftp to immediately start the back-
              ground  transfers you've requested, which simply runs a
              copy of the ncftpbatch program which is responsible for
              the  background  jobs.  Normally the program will start
              the background job as soon as  you  close  the  current
              site, open a new site, or quit the program.  The reason
              for this is because since so many users still use  slow
              dialup  links  that  starting  the transfers would slow
              things to a crawl, making it difficult  to  browse  the
              remote  system.   An  added bonus of starting the back-
              ground job when you close the site is  that  ncftp  can
              pass  off  that  open connection to the ncftpbatch pro-
              gram.  That is nice when the site is  always  busy,  so
              that  the  background  job doesn't have to wait and get
              re-logged on to do its job.
              Sets the transfer type to raw binary, so that no trans-
              lation  is  done  on the data transferred.  This is the
              default anyway, since most files are in binary.
              Saves the current session settings for later use.  This
              is  useful to save the remote system and remote working
              directory so you can quickly resume where you left  off
              some  other  time.  The bookmark data is stored in your
              $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks file.
              Lists the contents of your $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks  file
              in  a  human-readable format.  You can use this command
              to recall the bookmark name of a previously saved book-
              mark, so that you can use the open command with it.
         cat  Acts like  the  ``/bin/cat''  UNIX  command,  only  for
              remote  files.  This downloads the file you specify and
              dumps it directly to the  screen.   You  will  probably
              find  the page command more useful, since that lets you
              view the file one screen at a time instead of  printing
              the entire file at once.
         cd   Changes the working directory on the remote host.   Use
              this  command  to move to different areas on the remote
              server.  If you just opened a new site, you might be in
              the  root  directory.   Perhaps  there  was a directory
              called ``/pub/news/comp.sources.d'' that  someone  told
              you about.  From the root directory, you could:
                   cd pub
                   cd news
                   cd comp.sources.d
              or, more concisely,
                   cd /pub/news/comp.sources.d
              Then, commands such as get, put, and ls could  be  used
              to refer to items in that directory.
              Some shells in the UNIX environment have  a  feature  I
              like,  which  is  switching  to the previous directory.
              Like those shells, you can do:
                   cd -
              to change to the last directory you were in.
              Acts like the ``/bin/chmod''  UNIX  command,  only  for
              remote files.  However, this is not a standard command,
              so remote FTP servers may not support it.
              Disconnects you from the remote  server.   The  program
              does this for you automatically when needed, so you can
              simply open other sites or  quit  the  program  without
              worrying about closing the connection by hand.
              This command is mostly for internal testing.  You could
                   debug 1
              to turn debugging mode on.  Then you could see all mes-
              sages  between  the  program and the remote server, and
              things that are only printed in debugging  mode.   How-
              ever,   this  information  is  also  available  in  the
              $HOME/.ncftp/trace file, which is created each time you
              run  ncftp.   If you need to report a bug, send a trace
              file if you can.
         dir  Prints a  detailed  directory  listing.   It  tries  to
              behave  like  UNIX's  ``/bin/ls  -l''  command.  If the
              remote server seems to be a UNIX host, you can also use
              the same flags you would with ls, for instance
                   dir -rt
              would try to act like
                   /bin/ls -lrt
              would on UNIX.
         get  Copies files from the current working directory on  the
              remote  host  to  your machine's current working direc-
              tory.  To place a copy of ``README'' and ``README.too''
              in your local directory, you could try:
                   get README README.too
              You could also accomplish  that  by  using  a  wildcard
              expression, such as:
                   get README*
              This command is similar to the behavior  of  other  FTP
              programs'  mget command.  To retrieve a remote file but
              give it a different name on your host, you can use  the
              ``-z'' flag.  This example shows how to download a file
              called ReadMe.txt but name it locally as README:
                   get -z ReadMe.txt README
              The program tries to ``resume'' downloads  by  default.
              This  means that if the remote FTP server lost the con-
              nection and was only able to send 490  kilobytes  of  a
              500  kilobyte  file,  you  could  reconnect  to the FTP
              server and do another get on the same file name and  it
              would  get the last 10 kilobytes, instead of retrieving
              the entire file again.  There are some occasions  where
              you may not want that behavior.  To turn it off you can
              use the ``-Z'' flag.
              There are also times where you want  to  append  to  an
              existing  file.   You  can  do this by using the ``-A''
              flag, for example
                   get -A log.11
              would append to a file named ``log.11'' if  it  existed
              Another thing you can do is delete a remote file  after
              you download it.  This can be useful when a remote host
              expects  a  file  to  be  removed  when  it  has   been
              retrieved.   Use the double-D flag, such as ``get -DD''
              to do this.
              The get command  lets  you  retrieve  entire  directory
              trees,  too.  Although it may not work with some remote
              systems, you can try ``get -R''  with  a  directory  to
              download the directory and its contents.
         jobs Views the list of currently executing NcFTP  background
              tasks.  This actually just runs ncftpbatch -l for you.
         lcd  The lcd command is the first of a  few  ``l''  commands
              that  work  with  the  local  host.   This  changes the
              current working directory on the local  host.   If  you
              want  to  download  files into a different local direc-
              tory, you could use lcd to change to that directory and
              then do your downloads.
              Runs ``/bin/chmod'' on the local host.
         lls  Another local command that comes in handy  is  the  lls
              command,  which  runs ``/bin/ls'' on the local host and
              displays the results in the program's window.  You  can
              use  the  same flags with lls as you would in your com-
              mand shell, so you can do things like:
                   lcd ~/doc
                   lls -lrt p*.txt
              Runs ``/bin/mkdir'' on the local host.
              The program also has a built-in interface to  the  name
              service  via  the  lookup  command.  This means you can
              lookup entries for remote hosts, like:
              There is also a  more  detailed  option,  enabled  with
              ``-v,'' i.e.:
                   lookup -v
              You can also give IP addresses, so this would work too:
              Views a local file one page at a time, with  your  pre-
              ferred $PAGER program.
         lpwd Prints the current local directory.  Use  this  command
              when you forget where you are on your local machine.
              Runs ``/bin/mv'' on the local host.
         lrm  Runs ``/bin/rm'' on the local host.
              Runs ``/bin/rmdir'' on the local host.
         ls   Prints a directory listing from the remote system.   It
              tries  to  behave  like UNIX's ``/bin/ls -CF'' command.
              If the remote server seems to be a UNIX host,  you  can
              also use the same flags you would with ls, for instance
                   ls -rt
              would try to act like
                   /bin/ls -CFrt
              would on UNIX.
              ncftp has a powerful built-in system for  dealing  with
              directory  listings.  It tries to cache each one, so if
              you list the same directory, odds are it  will  display
              instantly.   Behind  the  scenes,  ncftp always tries a
              long listing, and then reformats it as it needs to.  So
              even if your first listing of a directory was a regular
              ``ls'' which displayed the files in columns, your  next
              listing  could be ``ls -lrt'' and ncftp would still use
              the cached directory listing  to  quickly  display  the
              information for you!
              Creates a new directory on the remote host.   For  many
              public  archives, you won't have the proper access per-
              missions to do that.
         open Establishes an FTP control connection to a remote host.
              By  default,  ncftp  logs  in anonymously to the remote
              host.  You may want to use a specific user account when
              you  log  in, so you can use the ``-u'' flag to specify
              which user.  This example shows how to  open  the  host
              ``'' using the username ``mario:''
                   open -u mario
         page Browses a remote file one page at a  time,  using  your
              $PAGER program.  This is useful for reading README's on
              the remote host without downloading them first.
         pdir and pls
              These  commands  are   equivalent   to   dir   and   ls
              respectively,  only  they  feed  their  output  to your
              pager.  These commands  are  useful  if  the  directory
              listing scrolls off your screen.
         put  Copies  files  from  the  local  host  to  the   remote
              machine's  current  working directory.  To place a copy
              of ``'' and ``'' in the  remote  directory,
              you could try:
              You could also accomplish  that  by  using  a  wildcard
              expression, such as:
                   put *.zip
              This command is similar to the behavior  of  other  FTP
              programs' mput command.  To send a remote file but give
              it a different name on  your  host,  you  can  use  the
              ``-z''  flag.   This example shows how to upload a file
              called ``ncftpd-2.0.6.tar.gz'' but name it remotely  as
                   put -z ncftpd-2.0.6.tar.gz NFTPD206.TGZ
              The program does  not  try  to  ``resume''  uploads  by
              default.   If  you do want to resume an upload, use the
              ``-z'' flag.
              There are also times where you want  to  append  to  an
              existing  remote  file.   You  can do this by using the
              ``-A'' flag, for example
                   put -A log11.txt
              would append  to  a  file  named  ``log11.txt''  if  it
              existed on the remote server.
              Another thing you can do is delete a local  file  after
              you   upload  it.   Use  the  double-D  flag,  such  as
              ``put -DD'' to do this.
              The put command lets you send entire  directory  trees,
              too.   It should work on all remote systems, so you can
              try ``put -R'' with a directory to upload the directory
              and its contents.
         pwd  Prints the current remote working directory.  A portion
              of  the  pathname  is  also  displayed  in  the shell's
         quit Of course, when you finish using the program, type quit
              to  end  the  program (You could also use bye, exit, or
              This can be used to send a direct FTP Protocol  command
              to  the remote server.  Generally this isn't too useful
              to the average user.
              If you need to change the name of a  remote  file,  you
              can use the rename command, like:
                   rename SPHYGMTR.TAR sphygmomanometer-2.3.1.tar
              Sends a help request to the remote server.  The list of
              FTP  Protocol  commands is often printed, and sometimes
              some other information that is  actually  useful,  like
              how to reach the site administrator.
              Depending on the remote server, you may be able to give
              a parameter to the server also, like:
                   rhelp NLST
              One server responded:
                   Syntax: NLST [ <sp> path-name ]
         rm   If you need to delete a remote file you can try the  rm
              command.   Much of the time this won't work because you
              won't have the proper access permissions.  This command
              doesn't  accept  any  flags,  so you can't nuke a whole
              tree by using ``-rf'' flags like you can on UNIX.
              Similarly,  the  rmdir  command  removes  a  directory.
              Depending  on  the  remote  server,  you may be able to
              remove a non-empty directory, so be careful.
         set  This lets you configure some program  variables,  which
              are  saved between runs in the $HOME/.ncftp/prefs file.
              The basic syntax is:
                   set <option> <value>
              For example, to  change  the  value  you  use  for  the
              anonymous password, you might do:
                   set anon-password
              See the next section for a list of things you change.
         show This lets you display program variables.   You  can  do
              ``show all'' to display all of them, or give a variable
              name to just display that one, such as:
                   show anon-password
         site One obscure command you may  have  to  use  someday  is
              site.   The  FTP  Protocol allows for ``site specific''
              commands.  These ``site'' commands vary of course, such
                   site chmod 644 README
              Actually, ncftp's chmod command really does the above.
              Try doing one of these to see what  the  remote  server
              supports, if any:
                   rhelp SITE
                   site help
         type You may need to change transfer types during the course
              of  a session with a server.  You can use the type com-
              mand to do this.  Try one of these:
                   type ascii
                   type binary
                   type image
              The ascii command is equivalent to ``type a'', and  the
              binary   command   is   equivalent  to  ``type i''  and
              ``type b''.
              Sets the process' umask on the remote server, if it has
              any concept of a umask, i.e.:
                   umask 077
              However, this is not a standard command, so remote  FTP
              servers may not support it.
              This command dumps some information about the  particu-
              lar  edition  of  the program you are using, and how it
              was installed on your system.
              Specifies what to use for the password when logging  in
              anonymously.   Internet convention has been to use your
              E-mail address as a courtesy to the site administrator.
              If  you  change  this, be aware that some sites require
              (i.e. they check for) valid E-mail addresses.
              NcFTP 3 now prompts the user by default when you try to
              download  a file that already exists locally, or upload
              a file that already exists remotely.  Older versions of
              the  program automatically guessed whether to overwrite
              the existing file or attempt to resume  where  it  left
              off,  but  sometimes the program would guess wrong.  If
              you would prefer that the program  always  guess  which
              action  to  take,  set this variable to yes, otherwise,
              leave it set to no and the program will prompt you  for
              which action to take.
              With the advent of version  3  of  NcFTP,  the  program
              treats  bookmarks  more  like  they would with your web
              browser, which means that once you bookmark  the  site,
              the  remote directory is static.  If you set this vari-
              able to yes, then the program will automatically update
              the  bookmark's  starting  remote  directory  with  the
              directory you were in when you closed the  site.   This
              behavior would be more like that of NcFTP version 2.
              By default the program will ask you  when  a  site  you
              haven't bookmarked is about to be closed.  To turn this
              prompt off, you can set this variable to no.
              Previous versions of the program used a single  timeout
              value  for  everything.   You  can  now  have different
              values for different operations.  However, you probably
              do  not  need  to change these from the defaults unless
              you have special requirements.
              The connect-timeout variable controls how long to wait,
              in  seconds, for a connection establishment to complete
              before considering it hopeless.  You can choose to  not
              use a timeout at all by setting this to -1.
              This is the timer used when ncftp sends an FTP  command
              over  the  control connection to the remote server.  If
              the server hasn't replied in that many seconds, it con-
              siders the session lost.
              This  is  controls   how   large   the   transfer   log
              ($HOME/.ncftp/log)  can  grow  to,  in  kilobytes.  The
              default is 200, for 200kB; if you don't want a log, set
              this to 0.
              This is the external program to  use  to  view  a  text
              file, and is more by default.
              This controls ncftp's behavior  for  data  connections,
              and  can  be  set  to  one  of on, off, or the default,
              optional.  When passive mode is on, ncftp uses the  FTP
              command  primitive  PASV  to  have the client establish
              data connections to the server.  The default FTP proto-
              col  behavior  is to use the FTP command primitive PORT
              which has the server establish data connections to  the
              client.    The   default  setting  for  this  variable,
              optional, allows ncftp to choose  whichever  method  it
              deems necessary.
              You can change how the program  reports  file  transfer
              status.  Select from meter 2, 1, or 0.
              When a host is busy or unavailable, the  program  waits
              this  number of seconds before trying again.  The smal-
              lest you can set this is to 10 seconds  --  so  if  you
              were planning on being inconsiderate, think again.
              If you set this variable to yes, the program will  save
              passwords  along  with  the  bookmarks you save.  While
              this makes non-anonymous logins more  convenient,  this
              can be very dangerous since your account information is
              now sitting in the  $HOME/.ncftp/bookmarks  file.   The
              passwords aren't in clear text, but it is still trivial
              to decode them  if  someone  wants  to  make  a  modest
              If your operating system supports  TCP  Large  Windows,
              you  can  try  setting  this  variable to the number of
              bytes to set the TCP/IP socket buffer to.  This  option
              won't be of much use unless the remote server also sup-
              ports large window sizes  and  is  pre-configured  with
              them enabled.
              This timer controls how long to wait for data blocks to
              complete.    Don't  set  this  too  low  or  else  your
              transfers will timeout without completing.
         You may find that your network administrator  has  placed  a
         firewall between your machine and the Internet, and that you
         cannot reach external hosts.
         The answer may be as simple as setting ncftp to use  passive
         mode only, which you can do from a ncftp command prompt like
              set passive yes
         The reason for this is because many firewalls do  not  allow
         incoming  connections  to  the  site,  but do allow users to
         establish outgoing connections.  A passive  data  connection
         is  established  by  the  client  to the server, whereas the
         default is for the server to establish the connection to the
         client,  which  firewalls may object to.  Of course, you now
         may have problems with sites whose primitive FTP servers  do
         not support passive mode.
         Otherwise, if you know you need to  have  ncftp  communicate
         directly  with  a firewall or proxy, you can try editing the
         separate  $HOME/.ncftp/firewall  configuration  file.   This
         file  is  created  automatically  the first time you run the
         program, and contains all the information you  need  to  get
         the program to work in this setup.
         The basics  of  this  process  are  configuring  a  firewall
         (proxy)  host to go through, a user account and password for
         authentication on the firewall, and which type  of  firewall
         method  to  use.   You  can also setup an exclusion list, so
         that ncftp does not use the firewall for hosts on the  local
              Information for background data transfer processes.
              Saves bookmark and host information.
              Firewall access configuration file.
              Program preferences.
              Directory where background jobs are stored in the  form
              of spool configuration files.
              Debugging output for entire program run.
              Used to tell if this version of  the  program  has  run
         PATH User's search path, used to find  the  ncftpbatch  pro-
              gram, pager, and some other system utilities.
              Program to use to view text files one page at a time.
         TERM If the program was compiled with support for GNU  Read-
              line  it will need to know how to manipulate the termi-
              nal correctly for line-editing, etc.  The pager program
              will also take advantage of this setting.
         HOME By default, the program writes its  configuration  data
              in a .ncftp subdirectory of the HOME directory.
              If set, the program will use this directory instead  of
              $HOME/.ncftp.   This  variable  is  optional except for
              those users whose home directory is the root directory.
              Both the built-in ls command and the external  ls  com-
              mand need this to determine how many screen columns the
              terminal has.
         There are  no  such  sites  named  or
         Auto-resume should check  the  file  timestamps  instead  of
         relying  upon just the file sizes, but it is difficult to do
         this reliably within FTP.
         Directory  caching  and  recursive   downloads   depend   on
         UNIX-like behavior of the remote host.
         Mike Gleason, NcFTP Software (
         ncftpput(1),  ncftpget(1),  ncftpbatch(1),  ftp(1),  rcp(1),
         LibNcFTP (
         NcFTPd (
         Thanks to everyone who uses the program.   Your  support  is
         what drives me to improve the program!
         I thank Dale Botkin and Tim Russell at my former ISP,  Probe
         Ideas and some code contributed by my partner, Phil Dietz.
         Thanks to Brad Mittelstedt and Chris Tjon, for  driving  and
         refining  the  development  of the backbone of this project,
         I'd like to thank my former system administrators, most not-
         ably  Charles  Daniel,  for  making  testing on a variety of
         platforms possible, letting me have some extra  disk  space,
         and for maintaining the UNL FTP site.
         For testing versions 1 and 2 above and beyond  the  call  of
         duty, I am especially grateful to:  Phil Dietz, Kok Hon Yin,
         and Andrey A. Chernov (
         Thanks to Tim MacKenzie ( for the ori-
         ginal filename completion code for version 2.3.0 and 2.4.2.
         Thanks to DaviD W. Sanderson (, for  helping  me
         out with the man page.
         Thanks to those of you at UNL who appreciate my work.
         Thanks to Red Hat Software for honoring my licensing  agree-
         ment, but more importantly, thanks for providing a solid and
         affordable development platform.
         To the users, for not being able to  respond  personally  to
         most of your inquiries.
         To Phil, for things not being the way they should be.

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